The pan-Eurasian language family may have originated in China about 9,000 years ago

  A linguistic study published in the journal Nature on November 10 pointed out that the pan-Eurasian language family-including Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolian, and Turkic-may have all originated in China about 9,000 years ago, and Spread under the development of agriculture. This research helped clarify an important period in the history of languages ​​in Eastern Europe and Asia.
  The pan-Eurasian language family spread throughout Eurasia, from Japan, Korea, and Siberia in the east to Turkey in the west.
  Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Human History in Germany combined the three disciplines of historical linguistics, ancient DNA research and archaeology, and discovered that the Pan-Eurasian language family can be traced back to ancient farmers who planted millet in the Liaohe Valley in northeastern China about 9,000 years ago. . These farmers later traveled across Northeast Asia, and the pan-Eurasian language family was also taken to Siberia and grasslands in the north and west, and Korea and Japan in the east.
  The research results challenged the “herder hypothesis,” which believes that the origin of the pan-Eurasian language family is more recent, probably from 2000 to 1000 BC, and it was spread by herders migrating from the eastern grasslands.

  Recently, researchers at Rutgers University in the United States who are studying new coronary pneumonia have used a cupping-like suction technique to invent a new method of delivering DNA molecules into skin cells. This method provides an easy-to-use, cost-effective and highly scalable platform for laboratory and clinical applications of nucleic acid-based therapies and vaccines. Related papers are published on the website of “Science Advances” magazine.
  In experiments on rodents, the research team used the inhalation method to deliver the DNA new crown vaccine, which produced a strong immune response, which was about 100 times stronger than the vaccine alone. “This suction-based technique is achieved by injecting DNA and applying moderate negative pressure on the skin in a completely non-invasive manner.” Senior author of the study, Rutgers-New Brunswick Lin Hao (transliteration), a professor at the University’s Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, said.
  Cupping is a traditional treatment in which a heated cup is placed on the skin to generate negative pressure and increase blood circulation in the area to promote healing. Nucleic acid medicine is a next-generation technology that uses DNA, RNA, and other biological molecules that control genetic information. Recently, in response to the new coronavirus pneumonia, several nucleic acid-based vaccines have been designed, manufactured and distributed on a large scale.
  After vaccination, synthetic nucleic acid enters the host cell and uses the cellular mechanism to guide the production of encoded protein, thereby triggering an immune response. A key step in this process is transfection, that is, the purified nucleic acid is transported through the cell membrane barrier to the cytoplasm (RNA) and nucleus (DNA) of the host cell.
  However, DNA and RNA molecules will not automatically enter the host cell, but will rapidly degrade. The previous method was to wrap lipid nanoparticles and apply an electric field, but this method usually produces inflammation, pain, and tissue damage.
  In this study, the researchers directly applied suction to the skin area after injecting purified DNA, creating negative pressure on the top of the skin. Suction creates tension and relaxation in all layers of the skin, triggering skin cells to absorb DNA molecules. The researchers said that this new method is simple, painless, and has no known side effects.