The body can use fat to fight infection

  Want to lose weight? Don’t be too ruthless, it’s also good to store some fat.
  In a new study published in the journal Nature Communications, researchers at the University of East Anglia and the Kadrum Institute have revealed how the body’s immune cells use the body’s stored fat to fight infection.
  The team studied Salmonella, a bacteria that causes diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. They tracked the movement and consumption of fatty acids in living stem cells and analyzed the immune response to Salmonella bacterial infection through liver damage, revealing how hematopoietic stem cells respond to infection by acquiring high-energy fatty acids from stored fat in the body.
  The team found that in the bone marrow, where the hematopoietic stem cells are located, infection signals drive fat cells to release stored fat into the bloodstream as fatty acids. These high-energy fatty acids are then taken up by hematopoietic stem cells, effectively feeding the stem cells, enabling them to make millions of Salmonella-fighting white blood cells.
  In addition, the researchers identified the mechanism of fatty acid transfer.
  ”Fighting infection requires a lot of energy, and fat storage is a huge energy store that fuels the hematopoietic stem cells to boost the immune response,” said Dr Stuart Rushworth, from the University of East Anglia’s Norwich Medical School. How the ‘fuel booster’ works gives us new ideas about how the body can be strengthened to fight infections in the future.”
  Dr Nyara Bellaza, from the Kadram Institute, said the findings gave us new insights into How the immune system uses fat to stimulate a response to infection. Identifying these mechanisms will allow us to develop new treatments for liver infections.

  Recently, hemorrhagic fever related topics rushed to the social media hot search list, arousing attention.
  Hemorrhagic fever, also known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, is a natural foci disease transmitted by mice and caused by Hantavirus. There is a peak incidence every 8 to 10 years, and the disease can occur throughout the year. There are two peaks of incidence every year, the peak from October to January of the following year is called Qiudong Peak; the small peak from April to June (or May to July) is called Spring Peak.
  In my country, the main host animal and infection source of Hantavirus is the black-lined mouse and the Rattus norvegicus, which form aerosols mainly through its saliva, urine and other virus-containing excretions and secretions, infecting people through the respiratory tract, and also through food. Contaminated food, rat bites and close contact, mite vector transmission, vertical transmission and other ways to infect people.
  This time, why did hemorrhagic fever occur in Xi’an?
  In fact, my country is one of the main endemic areas of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. In recent years, the epidemic situation has declined significantly, but there are still periodic fluctuations in a few places. According to experts, due to the combined effects of climate, topography, rivers, vegetation and other factors, the black-lined agaric mouse is more common in the Guanzhong area of ​​Shaanxi, and the wild black-lined agaric mouse has a high rate of carrying Hantavirus. The total number of cases reported each year in Xi’an, Weinan, Xianyang, Baoji City and Yangling Demonstration Area in Guanzhong region accounted for about 95% of the total number of cases in the province. The affected population is mainly farmers, accounting for about 80% of the total cases.
  Jia Zhansheng, director of the Center for Infectious Liver Diseases at Xi’an International Medical Center Hospital, said that hemorrhagic fever is clinically characterized by fever, hemorrhage and kidney damage, which may lead to death in severe cases. Hemorrhagic fever has symptoms such as “three pains” (headache, low back pain, orbital pain) and “three redness” (redness of face, neck and upper chest) in the early stage of onset, very similar to influenza, so it is easy to be misdiagnosed and mistreated , Self-medication leads to delay and aggravation of the disease. Experts remind that the treatment of hemorrhagic fever must emphasize early detection, early rest, early treatment, and treatment in the nearest standardized medical institution.
  How can this disease be prevented? Sun Yahui, deputy chief physician for infectious disease prevention and control at the Xi’an Center for Disease Control and Prevention, said that rodent control and self-protection are the main measures to prevent hemorrhagic fever. You should try to avoid activities in places where mice are easy to infest, such as waterside and grass, and avoid contact with mice and their excrement and pollutants. Implement long-term rodent control measures in key places such as village weeks, orchards, vegetable gardens, and farms. In the wild, try to wear long pants, long shirts, and outdoor shoes with closed toes to prevent being bitten by rodents.
  Vaccination against hemorrhagic fever is the most effective way for individuals to prevent hemorrhagic fever. People aged 16 to 60 in areas with high incidence of hemorrhagic fever should actively go to the nearest inoculation unit for full-scale standardized hemorrhagic fever vaccination, and conduct field exploration, tourism, farming and other activities in endemic areas, or have long-term outdoor work tasks in the field , can be vaccinated against hemorrhagic fever in advance to prevent infection.

  How did the first chemical reactions at the origin of life begin? What is their source of energy? Researchers at the University of Düsseldorf (HHU) in Germany have reconstructed the metabolism of the last common ancestor before the differentiation of modern organisms, “LUCA” (abbreviated as LUCA) and identified the long-sought source of energy, hydrogen.
  In the lab, Professor William Martin’s team at HHU’s Institute for Molecular Evolution conducts chemical experiments using catalysts and conditions found in hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. They identified 402 metabolic reactions that have barely changed since the origin of life about 4 billion years ago. Because these responses are common to all cells, they are also present in LUCA.
  In the most primitive modern cells, some compounds were synthesized from simple molecules present in the modern environment that were also present in the hydrothermal vents of the early Earth: hydrogen, carbon dioxide and ammonia – which represent the metabolic network of LUCA.
  The findings, published in Frontiers in Microbiology, show that LUCA’s metabolism does not require external energy sources, such as ultraviolet light, meteorite impacts, volcanic eruptions, and more. In contrast, in the environment typical of many modern submarine hydrothermal vents, the energy required for metabolic reactions to move forward originates from metabolism itself. In other words, almost all of LUCA’s metabolic reactions release energy on their own: the energy of life comes from life itself.
  The researchers explained that in the “Lost City,” the hydrothermal field environment that produces hydrogen in the mid-Atlantic, about 95% to 97% of the LUCA metabolic reactions can occur spontaneously and do not require any other energy source. In the dark abyss of hydrothermal systems, hydrogen gas is “chemical sunlight.” Modern energy technologies are working on harnessing the exact same properties of hydrogen as life. It’s just that life has 4 billion years of “hydrogen technology experience”, and human beings are just getting started.