How crazy is the US-Soviet nuclear race?

   At about 8 o’clock on October 30, 1961, a Soviet Tu-95A long-range strategic bomber flew over the nuclear test site of Novaya Zemlya in the Soviet Union, preparing to conduct an air-explosion test of a hydrogen bomb. The hydrogen bomb carried on the plane weighed 27 tons and had a design equivalent of 50 million tons. It was the most powerful hydrogen bomb since the invention of the atomic bomb, equivalent to nearly 3,000 times that of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima that year. Novaya Zemlya is located on the surface of the Arctic Ocean. It is as famous as Bikini Island, a nuclear test site in the United States. It is the second nuclear test base built by the Soviet Union. From the late 1950s to the early 1960s, more than 20 tests were carried out here every year. Huge aerial nuclear explosion. On this day, Novaya Zemlya will once again be baptized by a nuclear explosion and become the witness of the largest nuclear explosion in human history. In fact, the political purpose of this nuclear explosion far exceeds its scientific value. In October 1961, when the 22nd Congress of the CPSU was about to open, Khrushchev personally ordered the explosion of a super atomic bomb as a gift to the party congress, and at the same time “warned” the United States that our hydrogen bomb was far ahead. This experiment was carried out for this purpose.
   The Soviet Union was initially behind in the nuclear race. On July 16, 1945, the United States detonated the first atomic bomb, which was used in actual combat in early August. At this time, the Soviet Union put its nuclear program to full force and made all-out efforts to produce atomic bombs. Four years later, when the Soviet Union detonated the first atomic bomb, the United States had conducted eight nuclear tests and had begun to develop a “super bomb” – the hydrogen bomb. On November 1, 1952, the United States exploded the first thermonuclear ground device, which weighed 62 tons and had a nuclear yield of 10 million tons. In the summer of 1953, the Soviet Union also successfully conducted a thermonuclear test, only a few months later than the United States. However, the Soviet Union’s hydrogen bomb has a very small yield, which is only equivalent to a powerful atomic bomb. Compared with the 10 million tons of the United States, it is really insignificant. Therefore, the Soviet Union conducted experiments one after another, preparing to increase the explosive yield and shorten the gap with the United States. .
   Of course, the United States will not sit still and go all out to maintain its edge. On February 28, 1954, the United States detonated the most powerful hydrogen bomb in the world at the time, with a yield of 15 million tons, on Bikini Island in the Marshall Islands. The super hydrogen bomb named “Mike” blasted a huge crater 50 meters deep and 1.5 kilometers in diameter on the island. At this time, fishermen on a Japanese fishing boat 120 kilometers east of Bikini Island were frightened by the dazzling fire, and then they heard a huge explosion and were exposed to varying degrees of nuclear radiation. Regrettably, one of them died seven months later, for which the U.S. government compensated the Japanese fishermen with $2 million.
   A stone stirred up a thousand waves. This powerful nuclear explosion not only made Bikini Island famous, but also intensified a new round of nuclear weapons power competition. On November 22, 1955, the Soviet Union dropped a megaton hydrogen bomb for the first time from an aircraft at the Shemi Palatin shooting range. Westerners believe it was the Soviet Union’s first real hydrogen bomb. Although its yield has not yet reached the tens of millions of tons, this is the first time that a human air-dropped hydrogen bomb has exploded. The United States did not master the technology of using the B-52 strategic bomber dropping method to conduct hydrogen bomb tests until May 1956. For the first time, the Soviet Union was ahead of the United States in strategic nuclear weapons.
   Then, the Soviet Union devoted a lot of effort to the development of high-yield nuclear weapons, planning to explode several of the most powerful Soviet nuclear bombs at the Novaya Zemlya nuclear range during 1961-1962. On October 23, 1961, the Soviet Union detonated a 30-megaton nuclear bomb at the Novaya Zemlya nuclear test site. The effect of the explosion was unexpected, but it was not the biggest. On October 30, Moskarenko, commander-in-chief of the Soviet Strategic Rocket Force, and other key officials visited the Novaya Zemlya shooting range, preparing to preside over the record-breaking nuclear test. At 8:30, the Tu-95A dropped the super bomb at the Novaya Zemlya nuclear range at an altitude of 12,000 meters. A huge parachute hung it down slowly and exploded in the air 3,500 meters above the ground.
   The power of the explosion was beyond anyone’s imagination. The huge fireball expands and rises with dazzling flashes, and the huge mushroom cloud rises to an altitude of nearly 70 kilometers. The officers and soldiers of the nuclear test force, 250 kilometers away from the center of the explosion, not only could not bear the dazzling flash, but also quickly felt the scorching heat in the air. At the same time, the whole earth shook, and almost every country in the world recorded the super nuclear explosion. All communications near Novaya Zemlya were interrupted, and even the external communication of the special plane “Il-14” on which the VIPs watched the nuclear explosion was interrupted. This is the most powerful nuclear explosion ever produced by mankind. It is said that Khrushchev planned to detonate a nuclear bomb with a yield of 100 million tons, but it was cancelled under the obstruction of scientists.
   Huge nuclear explosions not only create a large amount of nuclear dust in the atmosphere and destroy electronic equipment, but also destroy the atmospheric environment and threaten human health. The two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were also fed up with endlessly high explosive yields, and the two sides reached an agreement in August 1963 to ban atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests, and the two sides began to move nuclear tests underground.

   Since the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian war on February 24, 2022, Russian military operations have suffered many setbacks. In the early days of the war, Russia really wanted to fight a quick assault, and their key link was the lack of power in the aviation. Specifically, the Russian Air Force lacks early warning aircraft and the number of combat escort fighters is not enough, making their early warning aircraft too far behind in the airspace, causing those Russian troops that go deep into the Ukrainian army to get no early warning of low, small and slow targets. suffered a blow.
   Regardless of the type, number, and sorties of manned and unmanned fighters, the Russian Aerospace Forces failed to meet the operational requirements. For example, Russian heavy fighter-bombers, there are only dozens of new Su-34s and 300 old Su-24s, but many of them have not been modernized and digitally upgraded, so they are not suitable for the Ukrainian battlefield at all, and can only be used in the backward battlefields like Syria; There are quite a few Su-25 attack aircraft, but the attack aircraft from all over the world are now in an awkward position. The active airspace is not high or low, and it is just in the high, medium and low strike range of all surface-to-air missiles. Even the number of new Su-30 fighters is not enough, only about 100, and a small number of single-machine and dual-machine missions cannot form a strong combat effectiveness.
   In fact, Russia still has a fast long-range fire strike. Missiles such as Iskander are this method. This system is more effective than the United States, but it lacks the means of continuous monitoring of the battlefield. As long as the target on the battlefield is found, the supersonic missile or the Iskander missile can strike accurately, and The Ukrainian army had no time to evade. This is much faster than dispatching aviation troops and drones, so their Iskander missiles can accurately hit the Ukrainian army’s targets, but they cannot continue to exert the suppression and interception advantages of this weapon. It is an intermittent strike, because the reconnaissance methods of the Russian army are intermittent. The Ukrainian army can take advantage of this intermittent reconnaissance gap to conduct troop maneuvers or supplies.
   Another shortcoming of the Russian aviation force is the insufficient number of electronic jammers. In fact, if there are a large number of electronic warfare aircraft, the weapons that the West gives Ukraine, all the image transmission will be stuck, making the switchblade unusable at all. At present, the Russian army has too few medium and large-scale UAVs for inspection and combat. There are only more than 20 drones, and at least 200 are needed to meet the needs of the Ukrainian battlefield, a difference of at least 10 times.

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