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India’s approach to waste

  Garbage is a by-product of human life and production activities, and it is also the main culprit of environmental pollution. As a hot social issue, garbage is increasingly facing all countries in the world, and it has become one of the most “headache” issues in the world. India also produces more than 25 million tons of municipal solid waste every year. In order to effectively control pollution, India adopts the following treatment methods for various domestic and production wastes.
  
  Recycling plastic waste into high-tech fashion materials and exquisite daily necessities
  
  In New Delhi, the capital of India, the Nature Conservancy uses discarded plastic bags to produce high-tech fashion materials and exquisite daily necessities. Such as high-end women’s fashion handbags, folders, shoe racks, storage boxes, tablecloths and pads. Moreover, these products are very popular in foreign retail chains.
  Established in 1988, The Nature Conservancy has long been committed to the development and promotion of environmental protection projects, such as converting household waste into compost. In the past two years, the organization’s main concern is the recycling of waste plastics. The first step in waste plastic recycling is the collection of raw materials. According to reports, waste collectors pick up waste plastics from the 600 tons of garbage discarded by New Delhi’s 14 million residents every day. 20%-25% of these garbage are waste plastic products. When enough plastic bags have been collected, the second step is to clean them. Cleaning the plastic bags is also a difficult job. Once the plastic bags are washed, the next step is to sort them by color and thickness. Next, the sorted plastic bags are put into a plastic processing machine to be melted, and then made into colorful plastic sheets of different thicknesses.
  Most of this machined plastic is made into folders, and it sells very well. Most of these plastic products are designed by foreign designers for free. The head of the nature conservation group admits that Indians are not very interested in these recycled plastic products, and they are often surprised by the hygienic conditions of these plastic products. And foreigners are very welcome to these products. These products are also mainly sold abroad, such as Sweden, the United States and so on.
  
  waste to fuel
  
  Waste in many developing countries is dominated by low calorific value and high biological content. The same is true of India as a developing agricultural country. In response to this feature, Indian scientists have developed a set of methods for turning garbage into fuel suitable for their own national conditions after six years of exploration. Scientists first remove the dust and sand from the garbage through the screen, then remove the iron filings through a magnetic separator, and then cut the remaining garbage into small pieces and put them into a rotary furnace with a temperature of 200 degrees for drying. The light combustible garbage is separated from the incombustible glass, porcelain, etc., and finally the light combustible garbage is compressed into pellets. This kind of particle is called garbage enriched fuel, which has good combustion performance and calorific value, and can release 4,000 kilocalories of heat per kilogram when burned. The waste-enriched fuel is fully burned and smokeless, and is an excellent fuel substitute for industry and agriculture. India’s first small-scale pilot waste-to-fuel plant has been built near the southern state of Bangalore. Compared with coal, waste enriched fuel has great advantages, not only energy saving but also large heat dissipation, which can improve the corresponding work efficiency. If half a kilogram of rice is made into rice, 0.47 kilograms of firewood needs to be burned, and only 0.27 kilograms of this fuel is needed. In terms of time spent, the former takes 33 minutes and the latter only 27 minutes. Indian scientists believe that the promotion of this technological achievement in India will have a huge impact on the development of the national economy. It will not only save energy, but also effectively solve the environmental pollution and disease spread caused by a large amount of garbage in modern cities.
  In the University of Madrid in India, in order to solve the important topic of plastic recycling, four senior students of the Department of Mechanical Engineering formed a scientific research group with the help of their teachers. After many trials, they finally succeeded in turning waste plastic into car fuel recently. These young inventors demonstrated the entire development process: first, plastic waste was added to a catalyst, and then heated in a vacuum. Under the action of the catalyst, the plastic waste gradually melted into its original ecology: oil . It is then distilled and purified to finally become gasoline, diesel and kerosene. Because it is heated in a vacuum state, the whole process will not produce carbon dioxide to pollute the air. According to reports, according to this method, 2.5 kg of waste plastic can produce 1 liter of gasoline, 0.5 liters of diesel and 0.5 liters of kerosene. Production costs are around $1.50. At present, this invention has passed the identification of the regional laboratory of Indian Oil Corporation, and now it is waiting for some manufacturers to invest in it and put it into production.
  
  Using waste to generate electricity
  
  About 50 years ago, the forest area of ​​Kerala in India was still 12,000 square kilometers, and now it is less than 4,000 square kilometers. Huge tracts of forest have become coconut groves, rubber forests or hydroelectric plants, residential areas. In the past, the leaves and branches of local coconut trees rotted in the ground and became waste. Now, scientists have developed a device that can break up leaves and branches, burn them, and convert them into gas, turning the waste of the past into efficient and clean energy. This combustible gas can replace diesel and assist generators to generate electricity. The Kerala State Electricity Authority of India has cooperated with foreign countries to build a power plant in Kerala that uses coconut waste as the main raw material, with a planned daily power generation capacity of 10-15 megawatts. In addition to local organic waste, the sources of waste also include coconut bran, petioles, stipules, chiba, etc. The technology and funding for the construction of the power plant were provided by the British Rolls-Royce company.
  
  Using bacteria to remove waste
  
  According to overseas news media reports, Indian Oil Corporation and the Tata Energy Research Institute laboratory recently reached an agreement that Indian Oil Corporation will buy the “Petroleum Killer” developed by the Tata Energy Research Institute to remove oil waste. bacterial products. It’s an eco-friendly product for removing oil refining waste, and it’s also 100% natural, made up of 5 species of bacteria that all feed on various components of hydrocarbons. This bacterial cocktail removes all the oil waste, leaving only the soil (contaminated in the past) and fertilizer in the end. After 6 years of experiments, more than 8,000 tons of garbage have been removed.
  In 1992, the Indian government’s biotechnology department proposed a research program on how to eliminate pollution in the event of an oil accident. Tata Energy Research Institute was invited by the government to supply its products to the industrial sector in 1995. Indian Oil Corporation, the number one company in the local market, has responded in the affirmative. “We started out with just crude oil, and the composition of industrial waste is different,” said Lal, who heads the program. “We did, though, and within two months, our bacteria were wiped out. A 20-ton sample.”
  The product was later used in nine other trials with equal success. “We can change the mix of bacteria based on the composition of the waste, for example, if a sample contains more of a known component, we can increase the proportion of bacteria that live on that component,” Lal said. The product is now available in powder form, which is easier to transport than the liquid that was originally trialled. Lal also said, “A 10kg bag of oil killer is enough to handle a ton of garbage. In the event of an accident, just go to the scene with a few plastic bags of the product and scatter it, and the rest is in a few weeks. It will naturally resolve itself. Once the work is over, the bacteria will die and will not cause any pollution. If the accident happens on land, we can ensure that the garbage removal is completed within a maximum of 3 months.”
  Tata Energy Research Institute has not yet Its products can be tested at sea. However, on a lake, after 45 days, a piece of garbage has been removed. “At sea, you have to take into account the salinity of the sea and the wave conditions, which can affect the effect of the oil killer,” Lal said. “Based on what we’ve done in the lab, it’s also possible, but it has to be tested in the field.” “

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