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Fox News Channel and News Entertainment

  American television news entertainment began in the 1980s and reached a climax in the 1990s. The background of the rise of TV news entertainment is that at the end of the 20th century, the Western capitalist market economy entered a mature and stable period of development. The entire society, including the media, was highly marketized, and the audience’s demand for information was complex and diversified. On the one hand, the education level of the general public has generally improved, and the number and types of media contacted and used have increased significantly; on the other hand, in addition to serious information needs, due to the increase in leisure time, the audience may also need leisure, entertainment, and entertainment at the same time. sexual content. At the same time, with the highly developed media market, the types and numbers of media have grown tremendously, and some media have begun to abandon the principle of news professionalism in order to survive in the brutal market competition. “tendency.
  The entertainment of American TV news is the entertainment of news content and form. The specific manifestations are as follows: First, the content is biased towards soft news (what Westerners call “popular news”) or try to soften hard news. Its characterization is to reduce the proportion of serious news, and focus on the soft content such as celebrity anecdotes, daily events, and provocative and irritating crime news, violent events, disaster events, sports news, and lace news; Its entertainment value is excavated in political and economic changes. The second is to emphasize the story and plot in the form of expression. From the initial emphasis on hard news writing, adding human factors to strengthen the closeness, it has evolved into a one-sided pursuit of interest and attraction, and strengthening the dramatic suspense or sensational and exciting events of the event. In terms of news stories and news literature. At the end of the 20th century, Simpson’s wife murder case, the death of Princess Diana and the scandal case of US President Clinton have become three classic cases of news entertainment.
  In the brutal media competition, news has become the main program of major TV stations in the world, and news channels have become the main battlefield of international media competition. At the end of the 20th century, major countries and regions in the world generally launched TV news channels that broadcast news to the world 24 hours a day. For example, CNN (Cable News Network), the world’s first 24-hour full news channel cable network appeared in 1980, MSNBC 24-hour TV news established by Microsoft in 1996, and BBC News24, a 24-hour news channel opened by the British BBC in 1997, Fox News Channel in 1996, etc. Among these news channels, Fox News, which was established in 1996, has come to the fore, and its ratings have risen sharply in just a few years. At present, its ratings have greatly surpassed CNN, which has a history of 24 years and pioneered the concept of “news channel”, and has become the highest-rated news channel in the United States. There are many reasons for its success, but the author believes that the main reason for its success is the adoption of the news concept and operation method of news entertainment.
  In world journalism, the principle of objectivity has always been regarded as the norm. For example, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has always claimed to report objectivity news, and CNN’s slogan is “CNN, the most trusted brand in news”, emphasizing the objectivity, fairness and authority of news reports. It requires the media to “focus on the facts when assembling and presenting the finished news; there is no bias or partisan stance, and the reporting is correct and true”; “for news events, they are only willing to be “fair witnesses” , the balanced and equal handling of the opinions of all parties on a topic is the unchanging principle”.
  Fox News has publicly challenged the principle of objectivity, arguing that “objective” reporting is impossible, replacing it with the principle of “fair and balanced”, which Fox believes cannot be reported by any single media outlet. Completely objective, always subjective. In addition, in a free market with fair competition, no single media can sway public opinion. The so-called impartiality and objectivity are the sum total of opinions expressed by all media under the protection of law. Fox’s presence is a counterweight to other liberal media outlets, showing “fairness and balance.” This slogan is undoubtedly a big impact on the traditional news concept and has become a prominent image symbol of Fox News Channel.
  In terms of specific operations, Fox also proposed: “We are journalists, but we are also Americans!” (We are not only journalists, we are also Americans), “We Report, You Decide” (We Report, You Decide). Adhere to the political position that patriotism overrides news principles when dealing with political news, prefer soft news or try to soften hard news in the content of news reports. Strive to excavate its entertainment value from serious political and economic changes. Especially after “9.11”, it stood with the Republican Party under the banner of “patriotism”, softened hard news with entertainment news, and was generally welcomed by the American public. In social news, Fox has done its best to hype sensational news to strengthen the dramatic suspense or sensational and exciting aspects of events. This style caters to the psychological characteristics of the large and poorly educated audiences in industrial society – sensuality, privacy and apparent patriotism.
  This entertainment tendency of Fox News Channel is considered to be the conservative “tabloid” of the television industry, MSNBC director Sorensen believes that Fox News Channel’s way of doing news is like dancing tango, CNN and MSNBC are waltzing, ” We dance the beautiful waltz, but the tango is the popular dance.” While CNN and MSNBC focus on providing objective news, Fox News has positioned itself as “the most vivid version of TV speech.”
  As a media owned by the media tycoon Murdoch, Fox News Channel has inherited the two characteristics of Murdoch’s media: in political news, it follows a patriotic news line and entertains political news programs; in social news , following the news line of laceism, doing everything possible to sensationalize and exaggerate.
  The first is to borrow a lot from the narrative methods of novels, movies and dramas in the form of the program.
  There are three main categories of columns on Fox News Channel: First, news, hosted by different hosts, including news, current affairs, politics, finance, stock market, financial management, comprehensive news, etc. The second is interviews and debates, such as the famous “O’Reilly factor”. The third is the magazine category, such as “Fox and Friends”, which ranks first in the morning programs of various cable news channels in the United States. The storytelling methods in these in-depth news reports and documentaries draw heavily on the narrative methods of novels, movies, and dramas, making the programs both authentic and credible, with undulating plots, vivid and beautiful.
  The second is the extreme and alternative style of the host.
  Fox News Channel has hired a group of young hosts who have the courage to express their own positions. They have a high reputation in the United States. Although their appearance, accent and temperament are different, their hosting styles have a common feature. Political entertainment makes serious political issues popular and attractive, attracts audiences and increases ratings. The host’s language style also tends to be entertaining, using sensational words to praise one side, ridicule and ridicule the other side who is regarded as the enemy, so that the program presents a prominent entertainment feature. For example, the host and front-line reporter of Fox News changed the conventions of the American press by referring to the U.S. military as “our soldiers” and the “Marines” as “our marines” in their reports. Iraq’s ambassador to the United Nations, Aduli, described him as lewd and “somewhat flawed”. The host of “The O’Reilly Factor” has a more alternative hosting style. He considers himself a defender of the national interests of the United States, often interrupting interviewees’ conversations, raising his tone, pointing fingers, and exaggerating himself while refuting the opponent’s position. , in order to create a hot atmosphere. The 38-year-old anchor Smith called John Walker Lind, an American young man who joined the former Taliban regime in Afghanistan, “Jihadi Johnny” when he broadcasted the news. For the hosts of CNN, MSNBC or the three major cable networks , absolutely dare not call it that.
  Again, the content is sensational and exaggerated.
  Although Fox News does not have much new ideas in reporting content and programming, it inherits the common ideas and characteristics of various media in Murdoch’s newspaper empire-the content is extremely sensational, sensational and dramatic. News report.
  The “9.11” incident provided a historical opportunity for Fox to defeat CNN. At that time, the sensational reporting style of Fox News just catered to the radical patriotism of Americans and the government’s need to encourage the morale of the people. During the second war against Iraq in 2003. Fox News has unabashedly supported every military operation, and it has often turned a blind eye to critics if military operations have resulted in heavy casualties among Iraqi civilians. The report on the rescue of the female prisoner of war Lynch by the US special forces is like another miracle of “Saving Private Ryan”. Completely subverted the principle of “fairness, fairness, and accuracy” in news reporting. This bold, out-of-the-ordinary and surprising performance completely subverted the rankings of CNN for many years, and in one fell swoop overwhelmed the relatively calm and objective reporting. CNN. According to the “Nielsen Survey”, in the first week of the Iraq War, Fox News topped the list of major TV networks, while CNN, which maintained an objective position, attracted only 4.37 million viewers. Although the US military was mired in Iraq and could not win so far, Fox has become the biggest winner of this war.
  The concept and operation of Fox News Channel’s news entertainment have made it a great success in the media war, ranking first in the US ratings list. The sudden emergence of Fox News Channel has also attracted great attention from the press and academia, and this phenomenon is called the “Fox phenomenon”. Some people think that Fox News “puts patriotism above news principles, and uses innuendo, suggestion and exaggeration news techniques to persuade audiences to accept a certain political position”, “through public opinion support for the government, it seeks to establish discourse hegemony, and ultimately achieve The maximization of commercial interests”… This is the essence of the “Fox phenomenon”.
  The success of the Fox News Channel also shows that in the United States, some media have begun to abandon the principle of journalism professionalism and no longer adhere to the “news heroism” that pursues truth and freedom. News has become a mass-produced consumer product. The media, like other business organizations, is at the mercy of capital. The success of Fox News has come at the expense of the entertainment of news and the disappearance of traditional, no-nonsense, professional TV news programming.

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