Read

Naipaul’s Postcolonial Homeland Complex

  Aristotle once said that the family is the basic form of society established by human beings to meet the needs of daily life, while the village and the city-state are the combination and expansion of the family. In this sense, a small home can refer to an individual family, a family, or a hometown, and a large home can refer to a city-state, a country, and the entire human homeland. Home has always been an objective existence of human survival and development, an important theme of human culture, and has always been written by people.
  ”The Odyssey” has Odysseus returning home from 10 years of maritime adventures, “Book of Songs” has the frontier guards nostalgic for home, and Hölderlin’s poem “Homecoming – To Relatives” has an affectionate call “Angel of the homeland, come! In all the blood of life, let the whole world rejoice and share the gifts of the kingdom of heaven!” Ba Jin and Lao She’s works have profound writings on the rise and fall of their homes, and in 2001 Nobel Prize winner for literature, Indian-born British immigrant writer Naipaul’s creation , there is writing about the postcolonial homeland.
  Naipaul is a typical postcolonial writer. The two world wars shattered the global colonial system and the world entered a post-colonial period. The post-colonial period is no longer about military conquest, colonial plunder, and forced trade, but more of colonial aftermath: latent power relations between former colonies after independence and the overlord, awkward interplay of servile inferiority and master superiority, culture and consciousness Morphologically complex relationships, etc. Born in 1932, Naipaul’s life and creation happen to be in a post-colonial atmosphere. His native India was a British colony. His grandfather was trafficked by British colonists from India to Trinidad in the West Indies as a laborer, and his father worked for the Trinidad Guardian. He himself lived under the colonial government of Trinidad, England, since he was a child. He attended Queen’s High School and used British textbooks. In 1950, he entered Oxford University with a scholarship from the colonial government. After graduating from Oxford, he lived in the basement of a relative’s house in London, poor and depressed, full of literary dreams but could not find a breakthrough for inspiration. After describing the life of Trinidad’s post-colonial homeland and opening his literary avenues, his literary trajectory followed Trinidad, deep into his mother country of India and the post-colonial areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Homeland is full of reminiscences, reflections, anger and sentimental brushstrokes, a comprehensive write-up of the postcolonial world of today.
  This writing of his is a writing of the postcolonial homeland. After all, for a nomadic writer like Naipaul, home has a special meaning. In the past, my grandfather came to the Caribbean far away from India. Now Naipaul wanders in Asia, Africa and Latin America all year round. In the sense of self and society, history and reality, material and spirituality, Naipaul has deep and complex feelings for his homeland. Yes, it is vivid and vague, close and distant, warm and hateful, twisting and twisting in Naipaul’s heart. Therefore, when he found the inspirational point of inspiration from Trinidad, he used his unique experience and thinking about his homeland, from Trinidad, India and the third world of Asia, Africa and Latin America to those real situations that implied countless homeland stories. , deduced the panorama of the current post-colonial homeland, and formed his own post-colonial home writing characteristics in the huge lineup of famous literary masters in the world, and finally won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
  
  Birthplace –
  
  Trinidad The post-colonial homeland of Trinidad was the trigger for Naipaul’s literary creation. In the 1950s, when he was in an unfamiliar London, he had no job after graduation, no place to publish his articles, and poverty and depression almost committed suicide, the trivial life scenes of Trinidad in his youth suddenly became clear and warm. “The Mysterious Massage Therapist”, “Miguel Street” and “Mr. Biswas’ House” were published one after another with the theme of life in Trinidad. In addition, there are early novels “Elvira’s Suffrage”, “The Imitation Man”, “Guerrilla”, travel journal “The Middle Passage: Impressions of Five Colonial Societies”, historical research book “The Lost of El Dorado”, political commentary The essay “Overcrowded Slave Market”; the autobiographical novels “The Mystery of Arrival” and “The Road to the World” in the middle period; the later autobiographical novel “Half Life”, the collection of letters “Between Father and Son”, etc. A comprehensive write-up of the postcolonial homeland.
  In Trinidad’s post-colonial home writing, “Miguel Street” and “Mr. Biswas’ House” are representative works. The former includes 17 short stories, which won the prestigious Maugham Prize in the year of publication. Through the perspective of “I” an Indian child, the work describes the poverty, numbness, and hopeless lives of many small people on the street of Miguel in Port of Spain, the capital of Trinidad. The latter is the author’s famous work, with an autobiographical nature. The novel tells the helpless ending of an Indian man in Trinidad through the story of Biswas’ attempt to own his own house. What the two works have in common is that whether they are writing about the life of a small person on the street or a person’s pursuit of a house, they are actually writing about the family. Unfortunately, these families are not happy and healthy families, but tragic, lonely, and changing families. Isn’t Miguel Street full of poverty, depravity, brokenness, and death? That alcoholic George beat his wife to death, and finally left the world himself, isn’t that his dilapidated pink wooden house? Mr. Biswas struggled alone to have his own independent house, but when he finally owned the house, didn’t he also leave the world? The two works are not only Naipaul’s portrayal of Trinidad’s post-colonial homeland, but more importantly, his profound reflection of the post-colonial situation of this homeland. Because, in the writing of Trinidad’s post-colonial homeland, we can hardly see hope and dignity, where people live without purpose, or have a purpose that is difficult to achieve, where there is only human disappointment and inability to control their homeland. We understand that the Empire has pieced together a homeland for many people from foreign countries in Trinidad, but this homeland, apart from bringing trivial warm memories to the lonely Naipaul, does not give those who have left their homeland a complete sense of homeland. Truly the misfortune of Trinidad’s postcolonial homeland.
  
  Land of Ancestors – India
  
  Naipaul has lived in the Indian community of Trinidad since he was a child, which is like a shrinking India. Those immigrant Indians still retain the living customs and language and culture of their mother country. Naipaul has felt the breath of India since he was a child. However, it is only imagination and memory before experiencing India, which is manifested when he writes about his post-colonial homeland in Trinidad. But India was always a hurdle for Naipaul, who himself said, “Yes. To explain something to the people. You know, I come from my past, and I have to write about where I came from. History – writing about the forgotten people. I had to write about India. I had to (as I used to) treat it my own way. It cost me a lot of work.”
  So Naipaul returned to India three times and published He wrote the important works “India Trilogy”: “Dark Country: A Journey to India where Memory and Reality Intertwined”, “India: A Wounded Civilization”, “India: A Million Mutiny Today”, thus bringing the post-Trinidad The writing of the colonial homeland extends to the postcolonial homeland of India. In The Dark Country, when the writer sets foot on Mumbai, “India is getting closer. The country is timid. Despite all my restraint, despite the many years I have gone through, through London and all kinds of Fear, surviving the images and memories of the coachman in Alexandria—India, the mythical country of my childhood, and a little of my affection for it, revived in me now.” This wanderer returns home The human nature of this kind of memory and imagination of the recovery of the mother country, its power twists and turns and tenacity, it violently hits the writer’s heartstrings. When Naipaul entered India, “for the first time in my life, I found myself a part of the street crowd. I looked and dressed like the crowds of Indians who kept pouring into Mumbai’s ‘Churchgate Station’. It looks exactly the same.” This is a very deep sense of identity and homeland, and only a wanderer can have this unique experience when he returns home, so even the Indian hawker told Naipaul in the tone of his homelander, “You need a Pair of sunglasses? Sir, from your accent, I guess you are an international student who has just returned from Europe. So, you must be able to understand what I am saying.”
  Naipaul traveled through Mumbai, Madras, Delhi and Kashmir, and in order to fulfill his promise to his mother, he especially went to a village in the eastern state of Uttar Pradesh, India, which is his grandfather’s hometown. In the “India Trilogy”, he described the natural scenery, urban and rural areas, cultural history, political economy and class hierarchy of the Indian homeland he had seen. However, the verification and understanding of the Indian homeland, the rippling emotions of returning to homeland and recognizing homeland, cannot hide the impoverished reality of India, narrow and broken streets, dirty environment, crowded people, class and race. Concepts and social chaos and so on. In “India: A Million Mutiny Today”, Naipaul used the oral method, through the narration of many local Indians in the social life of India’s homeland, and through the tone of people from all walks of life in their hometown, let them take the initiative to tell their own stories , so that Indians themselves can tell the face of the Indian homeland they live in. The result of their narration is that “In a country as poor as India, under poverty, under cruelty, and cruelty, liberation of mind will inevitably lead to unrest. Anger and resistance will inevitably follow. There are currently a million small mutinies in India. .” This is India after independence, an India full of poverty and filth, corruption, racial and religious conflicts and political struggles, and an India with economic development, social openness, and fading traditions. Here, the contradictions of India’s historical reality are intertwined, but the signs of hope are growing, and the influence of British colonial rule since independence still exists in all aspects of Indian society.

  The post-colonial homeland of Asia, Africa and Latin America
  
  If we write about the post-colonial homeland of Trinidad and India, it is because it is the birthplace and ancestral land of writers, it is related to ethnic blood and culture, and it is a kind of individual family or nation-state. If he agrees, then when Naipaul turns his attention from Trinidad and India to the Third World in Asia, Africa and Latin America, his homeland concept is transcended by the homeland cognition of the place of birth and ancestors. Regarding the transformation of the concept of homeland, the famous postcolonial theorist Said, in his “Orientalism”, once used Auerbach’s words to elicit the European medieval academic theologian St. Victor’s Hugo in “The Secular Encyclopedia” ( about 1127): “He who discovers in the world that only his hometown is good is but a young child who has not grown up; he who discovers that all places are as good as his hometown has grown up; but only when he realizes that the whole world is A person eventually matures when none of them belong to him.” Said further elaborated: “The farther a person is from his own cultural home, the easier it is to judge him; the same is true for the whole world, if one wants to truly understand the world , spiritual estrangement, and tolerance of everything are necessary conditions. Likewise, a person can only make rational decisions about himself and his foreign culture when the same balance is achieved between estrangement and closeness. judge.”
  Naipaul traveled to the post-colonial areas of Asia, Africa and Latin America, and made a comprehensive writing about the post-colonial homeland of Asia, Africa and Latin America, thus raising his own homeland view from an individual to a nation and then to a world citizen. A universal and human grand view of the homeland was formed. In this writing process of expansion and sublimation, Naipaul’s judgment on the postcolonial homeland is more comprehensive, clearer, and more profound. Since the 1970s, Naipaul has visited the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, etc., resulting in “The Free Nation” and “River Bend”; in the 1980s, he visited the Congo, Argentina, and Uruguay, and then “The Congo Diary” and “The Bend”. Return of Eva Person with the Killing in Trinidad; visited Iran, Pakistan, Malaysia and Indonesia, the most controversial regions of the contemporary world in the late 1980s and 1990s, and published a travel journal, Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey; later he He also traveled to the above 4 non-Arab Islamic countries and published “Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions among the Converted People”.
  These works constitute a comprehensive picture of postcolonial societies in Asia, Africa and Latin America. African social turmoil, military coups, violent massacres and totalitarian dictatorships are looming; the post-independence Islam is even more violent and conflicting. In the masterpiece “River Bend”, the protagonist Salim is a young Indian of Indian origin living on the coast of East Africa. His ancestors also came to the African coast due to the migration of the population during the colonial era, where there were also immigrants from other places such as Arabia or Persia. “But we can’t call ourselves Arabs, Indians or Persians. We feel Africans compared to people in these places.” In Africa, Europe defeated Arabs and ruled Africa, so “we all live On the edge of the continent are small groups living under the European flag. As a child I never heard anyone discussing ourselves and the future of our coasts at home.” Now that Europe is gone, Africa is starting to become independent, but it is moving towards an independent African situation The ever-changing, bloody rebellions and insurrection riots one after another, no one to provide shelter, people’s lives are insecure. So “I made up my mind. I’m going to fly away. I can’t protect others, and others can’t protect me. We can’t protect ourselves. We can only avoid reality in various ways. I’m going to leave my house and the people around me. “In the end, Salim fled Africa, came to Europe, came to England. This Europe once ruled Salim’s African homeland, providing them with all kinds of goods, giving them language, and making them aware of modern civilization; this Europe has great cities, bustling streets, grand buildings, stately schools, it is Africa is where the rich, powerful and gifted can go to Europe.
  The postmodern theorist Jameson said, “Third world texts, even those that seem to be about the individual and libidinal tendencies, always project a politics in the image of a national allegory: the The story contains an allegory of the impact on the mass culture and society of the Third World.” “River Bend” is actually an allegory of the post-colonial homeland of the Third World and a symbol of the post-colonial regime. The fate story of the protagonist Salim not only includes the survival mapping of the post-colonial society in the third world, but also reflects the existing status of post-colonial homes in Asia, Africa and Latin America through Salim’s home consciousness. The era of colonialism is over, and many parts of the third world have gained independence, but the influence of empires in the post-colonial context still exists, the manipulation of the third world by developed capitalist countries still exists, and the turbulent and turbulent conditions of the third world are all It is inextricably linked with capitalist countries. Today, the post-colonial world in Asia, Africa and Latin America is still unable to make an easy answer to the power and future of the homeland, and the potential hegemony still hangs over the post-colonial homeland in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

error: Content is protected !!