The Rise and Fall of Native American Culture

  Native American culture, let us revisit the civilization and barbarism, progress and backwardness in the process of human survival and development…
   The origin of the Indians The origin of the
  American Indians is now a recognized conclusion in the academic world. During the last ice age, the Bering Strait was narrow and shallow. The sea ice formed a land bridge, and the two continents of Asia and America were connected in the northern part of the Bering Sea. Ancient Asians reached the Americas on foot from the land bridge in the Bering Strait and became the ancestors of the Indians.
  Paleoanthropologists make such an inference because no fossils of the evolution of ancient Indians have been found in the American continent, only the remains of the activities of the Indians. In recent years, New Genetics has also come to the conclusion that Amerindians came from Asia when tracking the spread of human genes. The cross-validation of the two disciplines strongly supports the assertion that the Native Americans came from Asia.
  Unfortunately religion also got involved in the Indian origin debate. Mormonism expounded in the form of God’s covenant: In 600 B.C., Lehi the Israelites obeyed God’s instructions and took his family across the ocean to North America to reproduce. The descendants of his son Laman were cursed by God for disobeying God’s orders, their skin turned dark and they became Indians. If they can repent and get God’s forgiveness, the Indians will be as white as ever.
  Religion meets science, and there is always a religionist who is helpless. Because science itself has no gods and no rulers, it does not draw conclusions in favor of any force, nor does it presume its position to be an enemy of any force. It simply conveys the results of the experiments and the facts discovered without the slightest emotion. Often an ordinary conclusion in science, it leaves religiousists painstakingly plugging the loopholes in doctrine, and theologians laboriously polishing the knots and burrs of the Bible to form a smooth transition to science.
  Indians are natural conservationists. They do not see themselves as the masters of all things, but see themselves as a member of the natural system. They have a feeling of awe for Mother Earth. Spring is the season of mother earth’s pregnancy. Some serious Indians will walk barefoot. They are afraid that their hard boots will kick the pregnant mother, and they can’t use the plow and hoe to turn the land. That is the sin of cutting the mother’s belly.
  The Indians in North America lived mainly by hunting, fishing and collecting fruit. Agriculture was in the primitive state of “planting and harvesting”, which prevented the North American Indians from developing into the higher farming civilizations in Central and South America. There are about 500 tribes scattered here, with different languages, no writing, only oral history, and never formed a kingdom.
  Indians take a friend-or-enemy dichotomy toward outsiders, showing no mercy to enemies and zeal for friends.
  They especially value honesty. Tribal members who lie, face severe punishment from the chief. “The liar dies” is the rule of some tribes.
  The plundering and vendetta between tribes made the Indians have a cruel side. They would express their bravery by killing captives and skinning people as decorations. Archaeologists excavated the site of the activities of the North American Indians in the 12th century, indicating that there was a banquet of human flesh barbecues, and undigested human flesh protein was also detected in human feces-so that the legendary Indians once had cannibalistic activities of cannibalism. confirmed.
   Bloody Conflict with European Immigrants
  ”Thanksgiving” is a holiday in the United States commemorating the touching friendship between Indians and new immigrants. However, from the landing of the first European immigrants in 1621, the stories that happened between European immigrants and indigenous people in the following two hundred years were more of conflict and bloodshed.
  In 1823, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in a case involving Indian land rights that Indians had only the legal right to reside in land, and they had no right to sell land belonging to the federal government to anyone without the consent of the federal government.
  In this case, the Supreme Court established the political status of Indians, that is, Indians are neither American citizens nor foreign citizens, but the so-called “domestic dependent nations” who directly accept the guardianship and management of the federal government. It wasn’t until the 1820s that the U.S. Congress passed laws giving Indians the status of U.S. citizens.
  In the 19th century, the U.S. government established some large Indian reservations. Due to the size of the Western Reservation, the Indian Reservation became a hindrance with the construction of the Trans-American Railroad.
  In this historical context, in 1887, Congress passed the Land Allocation Act proposed by Senator Davis of Massachusetts, also known as the “Davies Act”. The purpose of this law was to transform the Indians from nomads to peasants, fixing this erratic people on the land.
  The Indian reservation is divided into 160-hectare parcels, each of which is allocated to the male head of each Indian family. Before the passage of the Indian Land Allotment Act, the Indian reservation area was about 140 million hectares. After the law was passed, Congress reduced the area of ​​the reservation area to 40 million hectares.
  Indians initially had difficulty adjusting to the idea of ​​land ownership. According to the Indians, how could people own land? That’s part of Mother Earth. Even now you ask an Aboriginal Canadian, “How much land do you have?” He doesn’t say how many hectares I have, but 100 miles east, 60 miles west from here – I can set traps and traps. Their concept of land is just the scope of fishing and hunting.
  When Europeans came to the American continent, they also brought the concept of land ownership here, and the Indians have been trying to adapt to this landownership mode of life for the past few hundred years. Indigenous people who are not good at farming do not have the joy of getting the land, but only feel the bondage of the heaven and the earth being reduced.
  The relationship between the federal government and the Indians became increasingly tense with the introduction of the Land Allotment Act. From the early days of the founding of the United States, Indians continued to attack immigrant villages and loot mail trucks. There have been several tragic incidents in which immigrant villages were completely beheaded and killed, and each tragic incident led to a government crackdown, which hit the Indians again.
  In the Anglo-American War of 1812-1814, the native populations of the northern United States and Canada united in support of Britain against the United States; even in the American Civil War, major Indian tribes supported the South against the federal government. The Indians stood in the wrong team several times at critical moments, which made the political status of the Indians fall repeatedly. With the increasing national power of the United States, the Indians have been increasingly marginalized, and European immigrants have become the masters of the North American continent.
  When Columbus first discovered the Americas, the North American Indian population was approximately 850,000. By 1850, it had dropped sharply to 250,000, mainly because the indigenous population was not immune to European diseases, and many died of smallpox.
  There is a theory that European immigrants deliberately gave Indians blankets with smallpox virus in order to spread disease, achieve genocide, and seize their land – this is of course very racist against white people. Righteous indignation, but lack of evidence.
  Smallpox had already ravaged the Americas when the first immigrant ship, the Mayflower, arrived in America in 1621. The first batch of 102 immigrants was placed in an abandoned Indian village. The indigenous people in the village died a few years ago because of smallpox infection. The new immigrants reorganized the deserted village and were welcomed by the tribal chiefs. At that time, the land was vast and sparsely populated, and there was no conflict of competing for land.
  An Indian culture declined.
  In 1832, the chief of the Blackhawks was defeated and captured. He said: “The whites did not scalp the Indians, but they did worse, corrupting the hearts of the Indians! They come every year to deceive and seize the Indians. Take our land.”
  An Indian old man of the Creek tribe criticized the white people’s ingratitude from the simple moral concept: “When the white people warmed their bodies by the Indians’ fire and ate the corn flakes sent by the Indians After that, the attitude became rude and the language was vulgar.”
  At that time, the governor of Michigan, Cass, had participated in several contracts with the Indians and used treaties to seize large tracts of land from the Indians. He dealt with the Indians all his life. “It’s human nature to keep improving – we have to improve their (Indians) hobbies from time to time, they are a bunch of uncivilized people who rely on hunting for unstable life data in order to survive, this is impossible. coexist with civilized society.”
  Modern evaluations of the history of the decline of the Indians under the expansion of the whites are also often contradictory. Starting from sympathy for the fate of the weak and the oppressed, it is natural to stand in the position of criticizing white expansionism. However, I have to admit that the European immigrants at that time seized land to build plantations, built roads and opened mines, which was a good thing for the country and the people to develop the economy. They represented the development requirements of the advanced productive forces in the United States at that time, the direction of advanced culture, and the basic interests of the vast number of immigrants in the United States.
  An Indian culture fell and died, and a mighty America was born, rising! Regardless of whether the two are causal or associated, isn’t this kind of cultural growth and decline also an inevitable trend in history?
  The demise of a culture does not mean that the people under this cultural structure also die together, but that these people are attracted by a more viable culture and abandon the old cultural traditions. As long as it is chosen by the free will of the parties, everything is justified. Now, the population of the Indian ethnic group has increased to 2 million people, while the Indian culture is in jeopardy, such as the dry lamp will go out. This raises concerns among some who have a soft spot for ancient traditions.

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