Peter the Great: Father of Tsarist Russia

  The tranquility of the dawn in Moscow was broken by the resounding bells of the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin in the Kremlin. Immediately afterwards, hundreds of large bells in other churches and monasteries rang in response, echoing each other, all day long. This is equivalent to announcing to the people that the royal family has been imported. The day was June 9, 1672, and the newborn was named Peter Alexievich, the greatest monarch in Russian history.
  Peter is the grandson of the first tsar of the Romanov dynasty, Mikhail Fedorovich, and the third son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. Given that many of Alexei’s sons were either infirm or girls, it is conceivable that the birth of little Peter made his father overjoyed and had high hopes.
  When Alexei and his eldest son were successively called by the Lord, a fierce battle for the throne began in the palace. While fighting hard to defeat the ambitious elder sister Princess Sophia (that is, the dewy lover of the Rakshasa Kingdom arranged for Wei Xiaobao by Jin Yong gossip), and the elder brother Ivan, who was mentally retarded, Peter cleared the “roadblocks” and was full of ambition. became the ultimate winner.
Rise of the Great

  Let’s say that the emperor cultivated three interests since he was a child:
  1. Doing handicrafts. Strange to say, as the emperor, Peter likes the “things made by the servants” that the Russian gentlemen disdain. Blacksmiths, carpenters, masons and other jobs, all want to try to do it. It is reported that he is proficient in at least 12 crafts, and the woodworking and turning work are particularly delicate, comparable to professionals.
  2. Military games. Peter organized his attendants, some noble children and young playmates from nearby villages into two corps, built barracks, artillery turrets and earthen fortresses, from using wooden guns and wooden cannons to using real guns and real guns, and invited instructors to carry out strict training. Training, practice offensive and defensive tactics. Who would have guessed at the time that these two regiments would later become the backbone of the Emperor’s regular army?
  3. Navigation and shipbuilding. Hearing that “poems and distances that cannot be reached with feet” can be reached by boat, Peter immediately became excited. At first, he just repaired his boating skills on the Yaucha River, a tributary of the Moscow River. After that, he let himself go to the Pereyaslavl Lake for a swim.
  The above three interests are exactly the portrayal of the emperor’s life: reform, killing, and conquest. In 1697, he made the most important part of his ruling career: he sent a huge embassy to visit Western Europe, striving to establish and expand the anti-Turkish alliance, and at the same time learn the advanced technology of Western Europe. After returning to Beijing, as the proud beards of the lords and ministers were cut off by His Majesty, the “modernization process” of Tsarist Russia kicked off vigorously.
  Peter imitated the Dutch and British navies, established Swedish and Prussian-style military schools, borrowed from the Germanic legal system, and then applied the Danish civil service. He pursued mercantilism, but in order to increase the revenue of the national treasury, he imposed a variety of extortionate and miscellaneous taxes, which led to repeated civil uprisings. At the cultural level, he has made great achievements, encouraging basic education, and founded the first official printed newspaper in Russia; Russia’s first museum, the first library (“I will also give an order not only to receive anyone for free) , if someone invites friends to visit these treasures, I will treat them to a cup of coffee, or a glass of wine, and I will pay for it”), the first public theaters and parks were also created for Peter. In addition, the Great Emperor also carried out drastic religious reforms and did not allow the Orthodox Church to interfere in politics.
  Like his ancestors who were insatiable, Peter did not stop the pace of external expansion. As soon as he took power, he had made two expeditions to Azov in an attempt to open up the Black Sea. In order to deal with Sweden, the Nordic power that dominates the Baltic Sea, he also reached a “Northern Alliance” with the Elector of Saxony and King August II of Poland and King Frederick IV of Denmark. In 1700, the Northern War broke out. The melee that lasted for 21 years ended with the victory of the tsar. Sober European monarchs and politicians found that the emperor was in power and Russia was on the rise.
  (Easter egg insertion: From 1685 to 1688, the Qing army’s combat effectiveness in the Battle of Yaksa was good.)
  In 1721, the Senate named Peter the “All-Russian Emperor” and “Father of the Motherland”. His reforms made Russia bid farewell to the East and move towards the West; bid farewell to the Middle Ages and move towards modern times. Since then, Russia has changed from a landlocked country to a huge coastal state extending from Arkhangelsk in the White Sea to Massandra in the Black Sea, and from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean.
Dynasty setting sun

  On February 8, 1725, Peter the Great died; no heir was designated at the time of his death, and there was no male heir (the prince was executed for “treason”), so the throne fell to the second queen Marta, who was called Yeka Terina I. This Shu, who was originally a civilian, was captured when the Russian army captured Livonia, and was taken in by the main general Menshkov, who was later dedicated to Peter, and was deeply favored. It is said that whenever the irritable Emperor Thunder gets out of control, only Marta can help her husband calm down. (Ps When the female prisoner becomes the queen and then becomes the queen, I have to say that Peter is very courageous. This plot is enough for the writers of small words to make up the million-word novel of Mary Su Hong.)
  After less than 40 years, the throne The number changed its owners; until another “great emperor”, Catherine II, ascended the throne, leading the Romanov dynasty to the last wave of glory. Sadly, the sun will not shine on St. Petersburg forever. Since moving the capital in 1712, the city has become a symbol of a utopian project to reshape Russians as Europeans, urging them to embrace an enlightened, progressive world. But the people always felt that the country was actually headed apart, “God is in heaven, and the tsar is far away.” The people do not understand the emperor, nor do they understand the society of the court, nobles, and officials who are supported. St. Petersburg is far away, maybe Moscow is closer.
  Simon Sebag Montefiore’s book “Romanovs” is like a Shakespeare play, expressing the resentment and emptiness of history. According to Montefiore’s point of view, the division of the upper and lower classes in Russia started with Peter I. This sense of differentiation and strangeness also pervades the Russian intellectual community, especially in Russian literature—the so-called dispute between the Western European faction and the Slavic faction. Pushkin said that he is a descendant of Peter the Great’s little black man, and he often misses his sunny African homeland. In contrast, although Turgenev is the son of a colonel of the Guards and a wealthy landowner, and his personal upbringing and taste are good, he all behaves “very Western European”; in the penultimate novel “Smoke”. In the book, the great writer even made his protagonist take part in the debate on the side of the Western European faction (Tu was patriotic, but seemed unwilling to understand it). In 2022, as the conflict between Russia and Ukraine continues to escalate, the organizers of the “European Tree of the Year” selection event joined the “sanctions” team, announcing that Russia is prohibited from participating in the selection of “European Tree of the Year”; and the old oak tree that represented Russia in the election, just It was grown by Turgenev. Contact the above to see, do you find it very ironic?
  Russia has the duality of Europe and Asia, the East and the West, the Orthodox Church and Christianity, tradition and civilization, thus forming a certain estrangement and distance, which is beautiful in literary and artistic works, but quite fatal to the rulers – damage authoritarian legitimacy. Facts have proved that “enlightened autocracy” is unsustainable, and the “great reform” of the tsarist government in the middle and late 19th century has long been unable to restore the declining trend. A wandering “ghost” will send the old empire to its grave.
History This Week People

  On June 6, 1916, Yuan Shikai died of illness.
  On June 7, 1974, Bear Grylls, the protagonist of Wilderness Survival, was born.
  On June 8, 1810, German composer Robert Schumann was born. Prince Philip, husband of Queen Elizabeth II, was born
  on June 10, 1921 .
  On June 11, 1963, Shen Junru, a modern democratic revolutionary in China and chairman of the Central Committee of the Democratic League, passed away.
  On June 12, 1914, Go master Wu Qingyuan was born.

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