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How the disgusting spread came about

  Psychologist Robert Zaronc has interesting conclusions about the “cockroach experiment” and the “exposure effect”.
  Zaronc put the cockroaches in a transparent and straight aisle, let the cockroaches run across the entire aisle to the other end of the darkness, and counted the time. Next, let the cockroaches run again, this time with other cockroaches as spectators on both sides of the transparent aisle. The experiment found that in the presence of spectators, cockroaches ran faster. This shows that the performance of cockroaches will be affected by the audience. He next tested the difference in the roaches’ ability to turn with and without spectators (the roaches were good at turning in straight lines and not good at turning). The runway this time was a cross-shaped maze, and the cockroaches set off from the horizontal end, and the goal was a vertical exit. Experiments show that the time it takes for a cockroach to run the maze alone is 110 seconds, and 221 seconds with an audience. The conclusion is that the presence of the audience inhibits the cockroaches’ poor skills. Zaronc concludes that the deviation of results is caused by the desire to be praised and to avoid blame. The path is that the presence of others—awakening—enhancing dominant responses—A, promotes simple behaviors; B, weakens complex behaviors.
  He once asked students at the University of Michigan to pick out their favorite words from a long list of words. He found that words that appeared more frequently in the word list were more liked by these students. Multiple trials have shown that the more familiar the target, the more attractive it is. Unless there is something harmful about the stimulus itself, the more people are exposed to it, the more they like it. This phenomenon is known as the “exposure effect”.
  We walk into a supermarket and are dazzled by the multitude of brands. We certainly don’t buy the unheard, only the most familiar. The familiarity is likely due to hearing and seeing the ad over and over again. Familiarity doesn’t mean sales, but the two are often linked. The main function of many commercials is to get the product’s name firmly planted in our minds, which is why product names are often repeated. The availability of an advertising brand is enough to suggest its superiority over brands that are not easily thought of. Of course, once you buy it and find you like it, you develop brand loyalty. Advertising influence can initiate a long-term process that indirectly drives us to buy a large number of advertised products when making future choices.
  Why do some directors prefer to give up powerful actors and choose traffic stars? Because traffic stars have more exposure than powerful actors, the more exposure they attract, the more attention and pursuit they will attract. There is often a large group of die-hard fans behind them who are affected by the exposure effect. These die-hard fans are the guarantee of the box office.
  Note that the exposure effect is not the Goebbels effect (repeated true effect). Repetition is a power, and a lie repeated a hundred times becomes the truth.
  American psychologist Eliot Aronson believes that when communication wants to change a person’s opinions, attitudes or behaviors, it is actually a process of persuasion, and persuasion should pay attention to whether people’s opinions or attitudes are faced.
  Perceptions, he explained, refer to what one believes to be true, and these perceptions are primarily cognitive. Perceptions occur in the mind rather than in the emotional depths, are ephemeral, can be changed by good evidence, and if data is combined with reasoning, people are likely to change their minds on the issue.
  But the attitude is different. These perceptions are no longer purely cognitive, and include strong emotions and evaluations of whether the subject matter is good or bad. Opinions that contain emotional and evaluative components are called attitudes. Compared with perceptions, attitudes are extremely difficult to change, especially when attitudes are linked to values.
  Some appear to be cognitive differences, but may be attitude differences. An attitude that is easy to change for one person may be deeply ingrained for another. Whether the simple Lianhua Qingwen is effective, if it rises to the level of traditional Chinese medicine, should it be denied; whether it is necessary to disinfect at home, if it rises to whether the epidemic should be prevented or not, this is the transition of cognitive attitude.
  American psychologists Richard Petty and John Cassiopo concluded that there are basically two ways people are persuaded: central persuasion and peripheral persuasion. The central path of persuasion refers to the way individuals are able and motivated to listen and evaluate persuasive messages carefully. The peripheral path of persuasion is the opposite of the central path. It occurs when the individual lacks the ability and motivation to listen and evaluate persuasive information carefully, and the individual is only influenced by external cues.

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