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Muslim view of music

  Music occupies a pivotal position in almost all religions in the world. In Europe, Christianity, as a special ideological and cultural phenomenon and a humanistic care system, has a long-term dominance over social ideology. Therefore, the accompanying Christian music has become an important means for European society to spread spiritual beliefs. In the Christian conception, music is a blessing from God and a gift from God to mankind. Many musicians believe in Christ and express their devout and sacred religious feelings through the creation of music genres such as Masses, Passions, Oratorio, Cantata, etc., leaving an immortal musical chapter for later generations. However, due to the differences in the historical background and cultural context of various ethnic groups, the views and attitudes towards music are often quite different between different religious beliefs or different sects of the same religion. Islam, which originated in the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century, gradually formed Sunnis, Shiites, Sufis, etc. after the death of its founder, Muhammad. The purpose of this paper is to sort out and compare the similarities and differences of the musical views of these three sects, in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the musical views of Muslims who believe in Islam.
  
  Sunni view of music
  
  Sunnis are considered the orthodox sect of Islam, accounting for more than 85% of the world’s Muslims, and believe in the “Koran” and “Haith”. The Qur’an is a collection of the “Revelation of Allah” announced by Muhammad during his 23 years of preaching. “Haith” is a collection of the words and deeds of Muhammad and his disciples before his death, which has a great influence on the thinking, words and deeds of Muslims and their way of life. The concept of “music” is involved in both Islamic classics, with both positive and negative criticisms. For example, the thirty-ninth chapter of the Qur’an reads: “Send good news to my servants, and they will listen to my admonitions and follow the best will.” Good news is a beautiful voice, and it serves as a medium for communication between man and the supernatural. It conveys the will of Allah; in the thirty-first chapter, Allah admonishes not to be arrogant and self-righteous: “Let your steps be humble, and your voice low, and your rough song like the barking of a donkey.” High-pitched and rough sound, and reveal the aesthetic standard of Muslim music evaluation, that is: deep and delicate sound is admired. Another example: Muhammad once said in the “Haith”: “Singing makes evil thoughts in the heart.” On the other hand, people are encouraged to drum and sing in festivals, weddings, birthdays and other ceremonies. It can be seen from this that neither the Quran nor the Sunnah clearly indicate the attitude towards music, they emphasize the singing of appropriate songs in appropriate occasions, and do not completely prohibit the use of music. However, it is precisely because of the ambiguous attitude towards music in the Quran and Hadith that the four Sunni schools of law strongly oppose music. For example, the Hanafi School of Law believes that singing itself is an original sin lurking in the depths of the soul, and singers and instrumental performers should not be accepted by the society; the Marek School of Law believes that the recitation of the Koran should not add any artificial The melody should be purely recited; the Shafi’i School of Law believes that truly devout Muslims should not listen to secular music, let alone sing secular music as a profession; the Hanbali School of Law is more strict than the other three schools, Music is almost completely excluded.
  
  Shia music
  
  Shiites are the second largest sect in Islam after Sunnis, accounting for about 10% of the world’s Muslims. They only believe in the Koran and do not regard the Hadith as a classic. Compared with Sunnis, Shiites have a more open view of music, as the scholar Saiddin pointed out: “Every path that leads man to God is legal, if music leads man to it, then Music is also legal. Music is illegal if it drives people away from the Word of God and weakens the spirit and leads people to sin, wrong, and sin.” In Shia music, singing or listening The following five kinds of music are illegal: 1. The subject of the singing is against Islamic teachings. Such as: singing songs about drinking; 2. The content of the singing violates Islamic teachings. Such as: songs that make people want worldly desires and attempt to commit crimes; 2. The attitude of singing is contrary to Islamic teachings. Such as: singing accompanied by sexually suggestive actions; 3. The singing time limit violates Islamic teachings. Such as: exaggerated, lengthy songs; 5. The occasion of singing is against Islamic teachings. Such as: singing prayer songs at religious ceremonies commemorating Muhammad’s birthday, etc.
  
  Sufi view of music
  
  Sufism takes the Koran and Hadith as the basis for its doctrine, and there is no unified doctrine. It believes that beautiful music and graceful dance can not only please Allah, but also help Sufi believers relax their bodies, stay away from worldly troubles, eliminate inner selfish desires, and achieve the goal of spiritual cultivation of unity with Allah. Therefore, Music is an extremely important and necessary part of Sufism religious rituals. For example, in the Diker ceremony of the Nag Virtual Diye Sect, the practitioners closed their eyes and recited the hymn “There is no god but Allah” against the background of instrumental music, and through the swaying of the body, Breath control to reach the state of ecstasy. The sama ceremony of the Merevi sect is mainly based on the mantra, and the practitioners dance with the accompaniment of Nai, Lebabu, Kudun and cymbals, completely immersed in the world of meditation: “Oh, the sun rises! The origin of the world is dancing, and so does the soul intoxicated with ecstasy. In your ear, I will tell you where this dance will dance. All the origins of the world in the air, in the desert, they know Oneself is loved, and like us, happy or unhappy, dazzled by the sun of the free soul.” The ceremonial music of the Ghisti is called kavari, made by trained musicians The home sings for the practitioners to arouse their yearning and pursuit of Allah, the Holy Muhammad and the teachers of the Jisti order. Although music has a special meaning and function in Sufism’s religious ceremonies, not all musical forms are accepted by the sect. Those that are prone to degeneration and malaise, as well as purely instrumental works whose content cannot be identified are all is forbidden.
  In a word, due to the rareness of music in the Quran and Hadith, the understanding and use of music among different sects or sects in Islam are not the same, but it is not difficult for us to find the above three sects music views The same thing is that the music that Muslims sing or listen to must conform to Islamic teachings, ethics and moral standards, they neither completely agree with music nor completely oppose it; among the two musical forms of vocal music and instrumental music, vocal music occupies absolute The advantage is that instrumental music only occupies the status of accompaniment. Muslims believe that “instruments are the worshipers of the devil”, and only naiyi and tambourine are allowed in the “strange training”. In addition, although the Quran chanting, Muhammad’s birthday chanting and prayer songs mentioned in the text sound cadence and have elements of melody and rhythm in music, they are not included in the category of music by Muslims; People from different cultural backgrounds have differences in music cognition, but for non-Muslims, this is typical religious music.

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