Camus’ rebellious thinker

  Camus (1913~1960) has been away from us for half a century, however, his thoughts and creations still have positive significance and value for us today. After experiencing the tide of postmodern deconstruction, people have lost their ultimate value and purpose. The loss or dissolution of meaning is not only the reason for our present life, but also more and more the goal that people chase after. The loss of meaning is absurd, and the absurd is meaningless, and people cannot live in a world without meaning. Therefore, suicide is a problem that every person who is anxious, painful, and even desperate for the loss of meaning must face. Sure enough, suicide has become a prominent problem in today’s modern society. Before the Middle Ages, suicide was an extremely rare phenomenon. Suicide only became popular in Europe with the first publicity of subjectivism and individualism in the sixteenth century. According to statistics, between 1550 and 1580, there were 4 treatises devoted to suicide, 15 in the 17th century, 84 in the 18th century, and 540 in the 19th century. After the 19th century, with the in-depth and meticulous research on suicide, books on this subject were really overwhelming.
  In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus pointed out that the fundamental problem of philosophy is to judge whether life is worth living. The only serious problem in philosophy is suicide. “There is only one really serious philosophical question: suicide. Judging whether life is worth living is itself an answer to the fundamental questions of philosophy—such as that the world has three realms, and the mind has nine or twelve—all secondary. , are only games; the first thing to do is to answer the question.” In Camus’ view, he had never seen anyone die for ontological reasons. “Which of the earth or the sun revolves around the other is fundamentally irrelevant. All in all, it’s a trivial question. However, I have seen that many people think that their lives are not worth going on, and therefore I have seen others who died absurdly for the ideals and fantasies that gave their life meaning (what is called a reason to live is also a sufficient reason to die). So I think The question of the meaning of life is the most urgent of all questions.” Anyone who commits suicide because of one or that real cause and anxiety, and the person who claims to have committed suicide because of an ontological problem, is often not credible. of.
  There is no a priori meaning in life, and the one who realizes it is the absurd. The absurd refuses to commit suicide because he does not shy away from the absurd, but sees the absurd as an eternal state of existence, and at the same time as awareness and rejection of death. For Camus, this is rebellion. The meaning of life lies in challenging and resisting one’s own absurd living environment. Camus seems to have experienced the absurdity of the world and of life as soon as he came to the world. Camus was born on November 7, 1913 in the town of Mondovi in ​​eastern Algeria. His father, an agricultural worker, was enlisted in the First World War and died of his wounds. Camus was less than a year old at the time. The man who brought Camus into the world, Camus did not know at all and could not make any impression. Whenever Camus recalled this experience in the future, he could not help but think of the absurd. In 1930, at the age of 17, Camus started coughing up blood and was later diagnosed with right pulmonary tuberculosis. Camus was a student of philosophy at the time, and he loved football. The disease meant that he would say goodbye to it all, because at that time and for a long time afterwards, the disease meant incurable disease. This had a profound impact on Camus’ thinking. “One of the first manifestations of absurdity is that a man who loves his life sees himself deprived of his life inexplicably.” And finally, the death of Camus in a car accident on January 4, 1960, is somewhat reminiscent of life. ridiculous. In the Camusian world, the absurd is “the only known number” and “the point of departure”. In the face of the absurd, resistance is inevitable, and the meaning of life is born from it. So Camus said, “I resist, therefore I exist.”
  In 1951, Camus wrote The Rebel, one of Camus’s favorite works, although it made Camus far more enemies than friends. Camus said, “If we become aware of nothingness and meaninglessness, if we feel the world is absurd and the human condition unbearable, then this is not the end, and we cannot stop there. Apart from suicide, human responses are instinctive From the absurd feeling we see, therefore, that something transcends it.” According to Camus, “one of the few well-structured philosophical positions is resistance. Resistance is the relationship between man and his The constant contest between inherent ambiguities. It is the quest for an impossible transparency. It questions the world every moment…Resistance is the constant self-presentation of man. It is not yearning, Rather, it exists hopelessly. This rebellion is really nothing more than the conviction that fate is a complete fiasco, not the surrender that should accompany fate.” Rebellion is an idea of ​​Camus, existence itself, but not cannot be put into practice. Camus believes that the historicization of resistance will inevitably tend to and negate value and lead to nothingness. Rebellion can only stay in the heart or emotion. Once it enters a specific political and economic environment, it will become violence in the entire social order and structure, which will lead to new resistance, and so on. “What belonged to God is now given to Caesar”. History has shown that revolution is the replacement of God’s injustice with new injustice, and that resistance without specific social goals has eternal significance.
  Perhaps it was at this point that Camus parted ways with Sartre, another master of existentialism. Camus has always been considered an important existentialist writer, yet Camus made it clear during his lifetime, “No, I’m not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always amazed to see our names linked together. We even want to put out a little notice someday where the named person declares that they have nothing in common, but does not guarantee that they are not affected. This is a joke. The books we each write, without exception, are in the We know what was published before. When we know, we confirm our differences. Sartre was an existentialist, and the only paper I published, The Myth of Sisyphus, was against so-called existentialism.” Sartre He was close to the Soviet Union, and Camus happened to hate the Soviet Union, although he did not like the United States. Camus believed that only resistance means the existence of human nature; while revolution is an anti-human means against another anti-human existence. Consequently, the outcome of revolutions often leads to a different kind of absolutism. If there is a choice between resistance and revolution, Camus always chooses resistance.
  Camus was always resisting and always choosing. Camus said: “One has to make a choice: either we are not free, and God Almighty is to blame; or we are free and responsible, and God is not Almighty.” And as Camus’ choice is obvious Yes, we are free and therefore God does not exist. “In this absurd, Godless world, there are people who are sober thinking and no longer have any hope.” How should we live in the face of the absurd? Camus said: “If I am convinced that such a life has nothing but absurdity if I experience its whole balance in the opposition between my conscious rebellion and the ambiguity against which this rebellion is to fight, if I admit that my freedom is only meaningful to a restricted destiny If so, then I should say that the important thing is not to live the best, but to live the most.” The pain of a hundred years, for those who claim to build a new city-state and a new ideal in the 101st year, It is trivial. Camus’ view is just the opposite: happiness in a hundred years is negligible, what matters is how to alleviate the pain of a hundred years now. The kind of revolution that sacrifices the present for the future and the means to the end would be a betrayal of resistance. We cannot reduce the quantity of life for the sake of the quality of life, let alone reduce the quantity of the lives of some people for the quality of life of some people.
  The world is absurd, and philosophy or literature is an effort by humans to try to transcend the absurd. Although this effort is doomed to failure, but because people are aware of this failure and dare to face it, man is able to overcome his failure. It is like the labor of Sisyphus. We know that Sisyphus was the king of Corinth during his lifetime. It is said that he was scheming, and many gods, including Zeus, were fooled by him, and he was punished for it. According to Camus, “he carries the boulder, rolls it and pushes it to the top of the mountain, and we see a face twisted in pain, we see a cheek pressed against the boulder, a muddy, quivering face. Shoulders, feet covered in mud, arms completely stiff, and solid hands full of mud. After struggling with the limits of space and eternity, the goal was achieved. Sisyphus saw the boulder In seconds it rolls down to the world below, and he has to push the boulder back up to the top of the mountain. And he goes down the mountain again.” This lucid mind constituted his pain, but also won him victory. Therefore, Camus believed that Sisyphus was happiness.
  In short, Camus’ philosophy is a philosophy of life, which may be summed up as a philosophy of absurdity, resistance, and happiness. Rebellion is between the absurd and the happiness. It is the only career that an absurd person can make a difference to.

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