Bridging and Demolition: Kant and Waters

  Facing the natural divides of nature, whether rivers or mountains, seas or glaciers, human beings have learned to build bridges. In the spiritual field of human beings, when there is a gap in the ideological system, thinkers always try their best to build bridges so that ideas can smoothly enter from one end to the other, so that ideas can form a complete system. If there were no ravines, it would have been a waste of energy to build bridges. In driving schools today, we often see the kind of bridges erected on the ground, which are deliberately erected to train the students’ ability to drive vehicles across the bridge. In the realm of thought, are we also building bridges on the ground, for the sake of building bridges, only to comfort or train our thinking ability? Contemporary American theorist Waters in his “Critique of Aesthetic Authoritativeism” one book , to accuse the German philosopher Kant of erecting an amorous bridge on the horizon of thought.
  We know that Kant divides the world into phenomena and ontology. There is a natural order in the phenomenal world and a moral order in the ontology world. In order to demonstrate the existence of natural order, Kant wrote Critique of Pure Reason; in order to demonstrate the existence of moral order, he wrote Critique of Practical Reason. The former belongs to the problem of human cognitive ability, and the latter belongs to the problem of human desire ability. There is also a question of emotional pleasure and unhappiness between the two, and that is the question of judgment, and it is this question that connects the two. Thus, in 1790 Kant wrote the “Critique of Judgment”. “From the perspective of aesthetic history, the German ‘Revolution’ took place in the field of aesthetics… This revolution has the same significance as historical events such as the beheading of King Charles I of England and King Louis XVI of France. The Declaration of Independence… This revolution can be said to be a Copernican-like life in the history of art and thought…”
  ”Critique of Judgment” is not aimed at aesthetic activities or creative experience in real life and involves aesthetic issues. It essentially aims to build a bridge between “pure reason” and “practical reason”. Why build a bridge between the two? Because in front of Kant, there are two relatively independent fields: one is the phenomenal world, which is mainly exercised by intellect, and the other is the other side of the world, which is exercised by practical reason. The former is the realm of knowledge, and the purpose is to obtain knowledge; the latter is the realm of morality, and the purpose is to achieve good. The former is necessity, the latter is freedom. In this way, not only the world is divided in two, but the people are also divided in two. There is a lack of connection and communication between them. So a bridge is needed to connect the two. Here comes the power of judgment, “through which the various legislations of the understanding and reason are connected.” On the huge gap between ontology and phenomenon, aesthetics builds a bridge, because aesthetic experience is connected with the appearance of things on the one hand, and on the other hand, it can lead us to the transcendental world of ideas. Judgment is “reflection judgment”, which is aesthetics. It is not a judgment deduced from the principle of universality, but seeks the “universality” that runs through it through individual phenomena. For example, “natural purposiveness” realizes the fit between the object and the subject.
  The question is, is there really a huge gap between phenomenon and noumenon, between subject and object? If the original one is one and there is no separation, then is there a need to build bridges? Therefore, Lindsay Walter Si believes that the huge bridge project carefully designed and constructed by Kant is actually a “self-made amorous bridge project”.
  We have long been passionate about building this bridge. “Aesthetics is still an effort to find harmony between self-made divisions, a parody game of trying to mix and cross supposedly incommunicable boundaries.” However, “perhaps the result of our labor is nothing more than Imprisonment of ourselves? We don’t imagine that there are other ways of communicating between humans and non-humans, and that’s exactly what we should be trying to explore. Connecting subject and object to form a complete self, this Seems to have been the main myth of our philosophy.”
  We make a distinction, imagine a chasm for the sole purpose of creating a barrier to cross, and thereby gain the happiness and success of crossing. “We distinguish between subject and object, language and thing, form and content, literal and figurative…and this wall that separates our world is ‘not so much an essence as an illusion’. But its influence is real, it’s a force that hurts us. In short, we created this division so that we could create a bridge between them.”
  Since there is no divide, we don’t Bridge is necessary. What should we do if we are faced with a flat river or an ocean? Waters offers the solution: “Our goal should be to experience, not to know… Only in experience can we grasp Object.” We should give up building bridges and go swimming in the river, because experience always comes first. In fact, for Kant, the most important thing is experience. Kant believes that “all those structures, laws and images which man ‘find’ in nature exist in man himself, not in nature, and it is they that define the difference between man and nature.” Kant tried to use a materialism to disintegrate the stubborn smugness of ideal aesthetics. This materialism holds that there is nothing else beneath appearances, and that human responses to these appearances are counterproductive to the person himself. So human experience is crucial. The misreading of Kant by later generations is mainly because the readers’ minds are full of some hypothetical premises in Descartes’ philosophy, which makes them unable to realize that Kant’s philosophy is fundamentally opposed to idealism. Heidegger once said: “Modern subjectivism . In fact, the subject has never been inseparable from the object, and has no priority.
  Therefore, Deman tells us: “You have to experience art firsthand, because your personality and self is not something that anyone can assign to you, nor is it something you can acquire once and for all. The process of attaining self-awareness is a It’s a battle, and it’s a battle that has to happen again and again, so it makes your experience inalienable. It’s an event or an action, that is, you can be sure that it’s something you’ve experienced.”
  Kant built the bridge, Waters demolished the bridge. In fact, whether a bridge is built or a bridge is dismantled, it mainly depends on whether there is a gap and whether there is a need for communication and connection. The ideological gap is invisible, and the ideological flat is also invisible. Thoughts are invisible, so they can be ever-changing and have different landscapes. In order to build a bridge, first set up a gap for thought; or in order to tear down a bridge, first set thought as a flat river, the idea is exactly the same. It seems that the construction and dismantling of bridges all depend on how the thinker thinks. Once the thinker stops thinking, all bridge construction and demolition activities will cease on their own.

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