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Northeast Passage.

It is surprising how far to the extreme north seafarers extended their expeditions already during the first century after America had been discovered and the sea route to India had been discovered. It is true that they were not attracted there by research or fishing activities, like the Northerners in the past, but by the desire to find a shorter route to the far east than those that go south of Africa and America, which were also closed to people other than the Spanish and Portuguese due to the threat of war. It is clear that if there had been direct navigable channels to the north of America and Asia, it would have been easier for England, France and Holland to reach China than for Portugal and Spain. As long as the northern limits of both mentioned continents were unknown, there was every reason to hope that the desired passages would be found. And even if I survived, that the Northwest Passage and the Northeast Passage, if they existed, ran well through the northern waters, so the matter did not seem hopeless after all, when there was no idea of ​​the natural conditions of the Arctic Ocean. This ignorance is illustrated by the fact that Hudson thought it should be possible to sail across the Pole to the Deep Sea. A hard battle was fought by the sailors of England and Holland before the natural conditions of the Arctic Ocean were generally clear and it was shown that the waters passing north of America and Asia could not have any practical significance for world trade. that Hudson thought it should be possible to sail across the Pole into the Tyvene Sea. A hard battle was fought by the sailors of England and Holland before the natural conditions of the Arctic Ocean were generally clear and it was shown that the waters passing north of America and Asia could not have any practical significance for world trade. that Hudson thought it should be possible to sail across the Pole into the Tyvene Sea. A hard battle was fought by the sailors of England and Holland before the natural conditions of the Arctic Ocean were generally clear and it was shown that the waters passing north of America and Asia could not have any practical significance for world trade.

Ostrobothnian knowledge of the Arctic Ocean.

Ottar told King Alfred that in his country. In Norway, there was the best catch of whales, the animals being forty-eight cubits long, and the longest fifty cubits; from that we can conclude that the Norwegians and perhaps the Lappans already caught large whales in the 9th century and I guess much before that, whereas such hunting seems to have been unknown in England. The Northerners brought it there with them. The Spanish-Arabic writer Omar al-Udhri, who lived in the 11th century, tells about the Northmen of Ireland: »They drive young whales, and these are very large fish… The drivers gather in ships, they have a big iron hook (so as a harpoon) with sharp teeth, and the hook a large strong ring is attached and a strong rope is attached to the ring. When they catch a baby whale, they clap their hands and make a big noise. The clapping of the hands amuses the chick and it comes to the ships to be happy about it. Then one of the sailors approaches it and claws hard at its forehead, which the chick likes very much. Then he places the hook in the center of its head, grabs a large iron hammer, and with it strikes the hook three times with all his might. The young one does not notice the first blow, but with the second and third blows it goes into a great frenzy, and sometimes with its tail it hurts some ship and knocks it to pieces, and it remains so long in violent motion until exhaustion overcomes it. Then the ship’s crew pulls it to shore together. Sometimes the mother notices the chick’s distress and follows it. Then they have a large amount of powdered beat in reserve, which they mix with water. When it smells a blow, it thinks it’s disgusting, it turns around and runs away. Now the chick’s meat is cut into pieces and stored. And its flesh is white as snow and its skin black as writing ink.»

This description in all its naivety shows. that the Northmen, when establishing kingdoms in Ireland, had already developed whaling with harpoons into such a significant profession that it was known both near and far. Besides, they probably caught whales in other, more original and therefore older ways, shooting large poison arrows at them with bowguns to weaken the whale’s strength, after which it was struck with a harpoon and a spear; or harassed the whale low, where it got stuck on the bottom and could easily be killed.

The Norsemen made whales, walruses, and seals to catch on extensive voyages to the sea north of Norway and Iceland. They got to know the polar countries north of the Atlantic Ocean hundreds of years before other European nations, but literature was then still so little developed and the position of the Scandinavian and Icelandic population in the European family so peculiar that their remarkable discoveries were forgotten, except for what the old sagas have preserved .

In the west they knew Greenland and beyond it the sea as far as Baffin Bay and the land (ver. Maant. ja löytör. I, p. 234). On their fishing expeditions, they got to know the entire northern part of the Atlantic Ocean up to the more uniform ice fields of the Arctic Ocean. They named this region “Hafsbotn” and “Trollabotn” and in 1194 they found a land there, which was named “Svalbardhi”, i.e. “cool shore”. This land, whose position has been preserved by sailing signs, must have been the Huippuvuori archipelago. Towards the east, we know that they probably went to the White Sea at the mouth of the Vienajoki, but it is likely that their journeys extended even further. I guess they knew Novaya Semlyan too, although there is no direct evidence of that. The movement from Norway to the land of the Bjarmi was undoubtedly much more lively in reality than it appears in the sagas, because the sagas only mention the larger Viking expeditions of the chieftains, not, on the other hand, trading or hunting expeditions. It is likely that the inhabitants of the shores of the Viena sea. Karlians and Bjarmi, if these were different people [Medieval Norwegians separated the Karlians and the two Bjarmi peoples], learned from the Northmen how to build bigger ships, after which they themselves began to make hunting expeditions and teach the Russians to sail as well, when they appeared on the shores of the Viena Sea. This is how the people of Karelia got to know the “sea monster”, against the shore of which, according to the Kalevala, Sampo’s crumbs drifted, on the bottom of which, according to a fable told in Viena Karelia, Sampo grinds salt, which, according to the same people’s belief, Sampo has made so “pohat”, filled with salt and various game.

According to a Russian source, from the 16th century, the Yugris and Karelias of the Petshora area practiced catching seals and whales on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, making leather ropes, bags and other items, which already had a well-established market further south. They also caught walruses and gnashed their teeth at the Russians, who kept some themselves, and sent some to Tataria and Turkey. Arab sources say that Arab traders, in turn, brought steel horses to Russia. which were sold to the inhabitants of the shores of the Jäämere and which they probably used as hunting weapons (Maant. ja löytör. I, p. 274). The Karelians learned fishing from the Norwegians; this is also proven by the fact that the Finnish name of the walrus is borrowed from the Norwegian word rosmar (according to Fr. Nansen’s research). But the more the number of Karelian and later Russian hunters increased, the more the Norwegians had to retreat from their path. When the English and the Dutch began fishing in the Arctic Ocean in the sixteenth century, the Norwegians, depressed by unfavorable political conditions, had completely lost the eastern waters, where, on the other hand, Russian and, if you guessed, Karelian anglers were found in abundance.

What a pity that the earliest stages of these remote waters have fallen prey to wordless oblivion! How much illumination could be gained there from the old history of Pohjola, of which only fairy tales and poetry have preserved a few heroic traits! It is pitiful to think how the Norwegians’ gallant sailing nation, under foreign rule, gradually lost its former power in the sea, where it had once been a sole ruler, pity the people of Karelia, who could not grow up as the heirs of the Northmen while preserving their nationality.

The nature of the Arctic Ocean was already well-known in the Nordic countries, and knowledge of its catches and riches spread further south; but in the Nordic countries the knowledge was partly forgotten, and in the south it was not ready to practice Arctic fishing independently for many years. So when England and Holland started looking for a way to China and India, these countries had very vague ideas about what natural obstacles there were to overcome at the bottom. But in a few decades, a much broader and more thorough survey of the Arctic Ocean and polar countries was obtained than the Northmen had even in the best time of their hunting expeditions.

Already in 1484, King Juhana of Portugal had sent ships to look for a way north of Europe to China and India, and his ships may have reached Novaya Semljaha (Maant. ja löytör. 1. 427). But when at the same time a passage around Africa was discovered, no attempt was made to look for a northeast route in Portugal. The next attempt was made by the English.

In London, in 1549, primarily by Sebastian Cabot, an association »for the search of lands, regions and islands unknown to Englishmen» was formed. The association began to be called “Merchant Adventurers” and later “Moscow Company”. In 1553, three ships were sent under the command of Hugh Willoughby to sail through the northeast to China. Richard Chancellor was on board as chief pilot. The expedition received letters from King Edward VI to the rulers of the countries they would visit on the way.

Hugh Willoughby and Richard Chancellor.

This expedition, the departure of which was accompanied by great hopes, sailed from the Thames estuary on the 10th of May. 1553. but its fate turned out to be quite sad. The ships encountered stormy weather on the coast of Norway and two of them, after drifting here and there for a long time, seem to have ended up on the shore of Novaya Semlja. From there they sailed to Cape Kola at the mouth of the river Varzina, which is on the banks of Murman, and stayed there for the winter. But the entire crew of both ships died of hunger and cold during the winter, as can be seen from Willoughby’s later discovered diary. This also shows how bare the equipment of the expeditions of that time was compared to modern times.

The third ship, commanded by Chancellor, had separated from both of these and landed in the White Sea at the mouth of Vienajoki. Chancellor was the first western sailor who, after the Northmen, made this trip, if there is any information preserved. He traveled from Vienna with corn to Moscow, where he was most warmly received by Tsar Ivan Vasilevich, as he seemed to open a new trade route to the rest of Europe. Until then, Russia’s trade had mainly passed through Poland, because Russia had no port of its own except on the shores of the White Sea, and no one had found one until then. Chancellor sold his goods as cheaply as possible and instead bought furs, seal blubber, copper and other products of the country, after which he returned to England. In London, Chancellor’s successful deals raised great hopes, and the following year he was sent on the trip again, accompanied by two trade agents who concluded a favorable trade agreement with Russia. On his return, the Chancellor had Ivan the Tsar’s envoy with him, but the return trip was quite unfortunate. Of Chancellor’s four ships, one was shipwrecked on the coast of Norway, another while sailing out of Trondheim, and the “Bonaventura”, on which Chancellor himself was with the ambassador, was destroyed on the east coast of Scotland. The Chancellor was drowned, but the ambassador was saved. That was the beginning of the Moscow company. A very lively and productive trade movement developed from England to the mouth of Vienna, which lost its importance only after Russia had usurped the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea from Sweden. who concluded a favorable trade agreement with Russia. On his return, the Chancellor had Ivan the Tsar’s envoy with him, but the return trip was quite unfortunate. Of Chancellor’s four ships, one was shipwrecked on the coast of Norway, another while sailing out of Trondheim, and the “Bonaventura”, on which Chancellor himself was with the ambassador, was destroyed on the east coast of Scotland. The Chancellor was drowned, but the ambassador was saved. That was the beginning of the Moscow company. A very lively and productive trade movement developed from England to the mouth of Vienna, which lost its importance only after Russia had usurped the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea from Sweden. who concluded a favorable trade agreement with Russia. On his return, the Chancellor had Ivan the Tsar’s envoy with him, but the return trip was quite unfortunate. Of Chancellor’s four ships, one was shipwrecked on the coast of Norway, another while sailing out of Trondheim, and the “Bonaventura”, on which Chancellor himself was with the ambassador, was destroyed on the east coast of Scotland. The Chancellor was drowned, but the ambassador was saved. That was the beginning of the Moscow company. A very lively and productive trade movement developed from England to the mouth of Vienna, which lost its importance only after Russia had usurped the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea from Sweden. Of Chancellor’s four ships, one was shipwrecked on the coast of Norway, another while sailing out of Trondheim, and the “Bonaventura”, on which Chancellor himself was with the ambassador, was destroyed on the east coast of Scotland. The Chancellor was drowned, but the ambassador was saved. That was the beginning of the Moscow company. A very lively and productive trade movement developed from England to the mouth of Vienna, which lost its importance only after Russia had usurped the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea from Sweden. Of Chancellor’s four ships, one was shipwrecked on the coast of Norway, another while sailing out of Trondheim, and the “Bonaventura”, on which Chancellor himself was with the ambassador, was destroyed on the east coast of Scotland. The Chancellor was drowned, but the ambassador was saved. That was the beginning of the Moscow company. A very lively and productive trade movement developed from England to the mouth of Vienna, which lost its importance only after Russia had usurped the coastal provinces of the Baltic Sea from Sweden.

V. 1556 Merchant adventurers sent Stephen Burrough to continue exploring the Northeast Passage. Burrough arrived at the island of Vaigatsh and sailed to it and Novaya Semlja [Karelians of Vienna call Novaya Semlja »New Land». It is familiar to many of them from seal and walrus hunting expeditions.] to the strait between, which is still sometimes called Burrough’s strait. But he couldn’t penetrate the Kaara Sea, he had to return to Kolmogro at the mouth of the Viena and spend the winter there.

The good development of Viena’s trade meant that the study of the Northeast Passage could now rest for a while. English trade agents arrived in Russia, and during the winter they bought the goods, so that the ships received full loads as soon as they arrived in Vienna. It wasn’t until 1580 that the merchant adventurers again sent two small ships, one of 40, the other of 20 tons, to search for China. Captains Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman were not frightened by the magnitude of the task and the paucity of means, they tried many times to penetrate the Arctic Ocean, but in vain, the ice blocked the way. The larger of the ships happily made it home, but the smaller one, after spending the winter in Norway, disappeared on the way to Iceland.

Excursions of the Dutch.

After this, no attempt was made from England for a long time, but the Dutch, in turn, began to search for a northeast passage more diligently. The first trip of the Dutch to the northern parts of our continent took place in 1565 and that’s when the Kola trading post was established. Oliver Brunei traveled from there to Vienna and, despite the resistance of the English, made good business friends in Russia. But he too could not penetrate into the Kara Sea, but lost both his ship and his goods at the mouth of Petshora. In Holland, the Northeast Passage nevertheless began to attract more and more attention, and especially in the town of Enkhuysen, people eagerly began to look for it. In 1594, two ships were fitted out, led by Cornelis Nain and Brant Tetgales, and a third was fitted out in Amsterdam, led by Willem Barents, an accomplished sailor and more learned than the general captains of the time. Fourth, a small fishing boat from Terschelling joined the group. At the end of June 1594, all these ships arrived at Kildin (Kilttusulo) on the coast of Kola, the agreed meeting place, but there the roads diverged; Enkhuysen’s ships headed to the northern shore of Vaigatsh, while Barents sailed completely new ways. He tried to reach the Kaara Sea on the north side of Novaya Semlja, but encountered a lot of ice, and after a long and brave fight, he did not get beyond the north end of the island. So Barents went south and met the other captains southwest of Vaigatsh, who had also turned back. They had passed through Jugor Strait, which is between Vaigatsh and the mainland, and had made a good journey to the Arc Sea, but at last they had to turn back. They claimed to have gone all the way to the front of the Obi Estuary, but that was hardly possible. We all went home and arrived in Holland at the end of September.

Jan van Linschoten, the best connoisseur of the Indian trade at the time, had been on Tetgales’ ship, and he gave the same statement about the company that Koillisväylä’s hopes had turned out to be good. The merchants therefore equipped a whole host of larger companies for the following year. Seven ships set out, Nain, Tetgales, and Barents with them, the first mentioned as joint commander-in-chief. The smallest of the ships had to turn back from Cape Tabin when the fleet had happily passed it. This promontory, which was on the east side of the Kaara Sea and which therefore corresponded to the current Jalmalniemiland. was thought to be the most difficult part of the journey. Once you got past that, the rest of the trip to China would be short and easy. A glance at the map shows how completely wrong this assumption was.

The fleet set out in July 1595. After a little more than a couple of weeks, we were in the Jugor Strait, but it was full of huge ice floes. The conditions of the strait were investigated both by land and by boat, but it was found that it was absolutely impossible to penetrate through it into the Arctic Sea, and in the end the entire fleet decided it was wisest to return. Thus ended this great undertaking, from which so much had been hoped. The Arctic Ocean is without a doubt the biggest difficulty that the Northeast Passage has to overcome, because the cold polar current fills it so much with ice that it is rarely thawed even in summer, unless a favorable wind breaks up the ice fields. On the northern coast of Asia, from then on, there is shore smelt that can be transported by ship in late summer. which is melted by the warm water of the great rivers of Siberia. But that beach is so incredibly long, that no one has sailed the Northeast Passage since “Vega”. However, all these facts only became known through AE Nordenskiöld’s famous trip.

Despite the poor success of this trip, the merchants of Amsterdam decided to make another attempt the following summer, after being strongly urged. Barents was still convinced that the best chances of success would be north of Novaya Semlja. In May 1596, two ships left Amsterdam, with Barents as pilot. We will tell you more about this trip, which is one of the most famous in polar research, below.

The peaks are found.

Barents, on previous voyages, had shown more courage and more energetic rigidity in the search for the Northeast Passage than anyone else; it was therefore easy to guess that this time, when Enkhuysen’s more cautious sailors were not on the way, he would not give up the fight in the slightest.

Barents now took a more westerly route and found 11 p. Karhusaari, which is halfway between Huippuvuori and Ruija. Bird eggs were collected on the island and a polar bear was killed with great effort, from which it got its name. summer 19 p. saw a large country. which got the name Vippuvuori from its sharp mountains. Both ships explored a long strip of its west coast until the ice forced them to return to Karhusaari. There, Jan Rijp’s ship parted ways and set off to explore Viippuvuori. Hemskerke’s ship, on the other hand, with Barents on board, left for the east. July At 11 a.m. Kanin cape was seen, five days later the west coast of Novaya Semlja, but there was so much ice in front of it that almost a month passed before the northern tip of the island was reached. This time we reached its side and started sailing south along the eastern shore. Nowadays we know that the east shore is much colder than the west shore, because the cold polar current passes along it, while the west shore is still cooled by the breath of the Gulf Stream. So it is not surprising that the Barents soon had to seek the protection of the harbor against drift ice; and these then completely closed the port, so that the ship could not even move from its place. This happened on the 26th of August. »On the 30th of August, during a heavy snowstorm, the ice began to crowd around the ship», writes the mate Gerrit de Veer, who published an account of this trip, »and the ice lifted the ship, so that all its seams rattled. It looked like it was going to shatter into a thousand pieces, and it was so horrible to see that it made the hair stand on end. Then the ship once again ran into a similar danger, the ice penetrated under it, lifting it up as if by mechanical power.» The joints rattled so badly, that it was decided that it would be wisest to take provisions, sails, gunpowder, bullets, guns and other weapons ashore, and to build a tent or a hut for protection against snow and bears. After a couple of days, a river was found not far away with salt-free water, driftwood from the seashore and deer tracks. On the 11th of September, the bay was so full of large ice floes, which were pushed into ever stronger mounds, that the Dutch realized that they would not be able to get away. They decided to protect themselves from the cold and against predators by building a room big enough for everyone to live in, and then to abandon the ship, whose condition was becoming more precarious day by day. so that it was no longer fun to live in. Fortunately, there was so much driftwood on the beach that there was enough to build a room as well as firewood. They were brought by sea currents.

The first winter in the polar countries.

It was the first time that a European expedition spent the winter in the polar countries, in the middle of the Arctic Ocean, unless we take into account the northerners, who perhaps often had to stay in their hunting countries for the winter. These seventeen Dutchmen, therefore, had no idea or experience of what wintering in the polar countries meant; but with wondrous patience they endured their fate, and during the long winter not a single attempt at rebellion occurred.

There started to be a lot of polar bears, and here and there they came to visit. Many had to pay for their curiosity with their lives, the sailors took the hides, but didn’t care about the meat, because it was supposedly unhealthy. They preferred to eat salted meat, but as a result, scurvy soon began to wreak havoc. On September 24, they started building the room. It was made with all care and covered with planks, for which the bow and stern of the ship were torn out. October 2 p cucumber log was placed. One day a strong north-west wind blew the sea ice-free as far as the eye could see, but the ice did not leave the bay, but lifted the ship a few feet higher than before, so that the Dutch thought that the bay might be iced up to the bottom, although there was three and a half fathoms of water in it. October 12 p.m. the house was therefore finished so that one could spend the night there, and on the 21st most of the groceries, household utensils and other necessities were taken ashore, because the sun was beginning to be so low that the polar night would soon begin. A chimney was built on the roof, a Dutch clock was hung in the cabin, sleeping quarters were built on the walls, and a barrel was made into a bathtub, because the doctor had ordered to bathe in udder, which was the best way to preserve the health of the crew. During the winter, it snowed incredibly hard, the house was completely buried in it, so that a long passage had to be dug out in the snow; but the room became much warmer through it. At night, the residents of the house could hear. how first the bears and then the foxes tried to pull the boards off the ceiling to get into the room. The inhabitants of the house therefore began to climb the chimney, from which, as from a watch-house, they could shoot and drive away the beasts. They also built ships and got a whole bunch of naals with them, whose precious skin was the best protection against the cold, the meat a good help for food. The Dutch remained cheerful all the time and tried to reduce the gloom of the polar night in all kinds of ways. But sometimes the frost became very noticeable even in the hut, when the wind penetrated the smoke, so that it was impossible to keep a white, and then an inch thick ice formed on the walls. Every other day the men were given half a measure of sherry wine per man, but it always had to be thawed before it could be drunk. whose precious skin was the best protection against the cold, the meat a good food supplement. The Dutch remained cheerful all the time and tried to reduce the gloom of the polar night in all kinds of ways. But sometimes the frost became very noticeable even in the hut, when the wind penetrated the smoke, so that it was impossible to keep a white, and then an inch thick ice formed on the walls. Every other day the men were given half a measure of sherry wine per man, but it always had to be thawed before it could be drunk. whose precious skin was the best protection against the cold, the meat a good food supplement. The Dutch remained cheerful all the time and tried to reduce the gloom of the polar night in all kinds of ways. But sometimes the frost became very noticeable even in the hut, when the wind penetrated the smoke, so that it was impossible to keep a white, and then an inch thick ice formed on the walls. Every other day the men were given half a measure of sherry wine per man, but it always had to be thawed before it could be drunk.

»On December 7th, a severe northeast storm arose and the cold became unbearable. We did not know how to protect ourselves against it, and while we were discussing this another suggested that in this emergency a fire should be made from coals which we had brought ashore from the ship. So in the evening we made a big coal fire, which was unusually warm, but we didn’t think about the consequences, because the heat seemed to refresh everyone, so we wanted to use it as accurately as possible and blocked all the holes, the chimney, after which we each settled down in our beds and happily talked to each other about the warmth . But after some time, one after another started to feel dizzy. We first noticed it in one of our comrades, who was sick and because of that felt distress more easily. The rest of us got really worried now, the men rushed to open the chimney, the other opened the door, but fell on the spot, unconscious, on the snow. I rushed out and found him passed out. I ran back to the room to get some vinegar, which I used to rub his face until he recovered. When we had all recovered again, the captain gave each of us a little wine as confirmation.»

»The weather was clear on December 11, but it was so cold that anyone who has not experienced it would hardly believe me. Our shoes also froze on our feet, so that they were hard as horn and covered with ice on the inside, and it was impossible to use them. Our clothes were completely white from the frost and ice. On the 25th of December, Christmas Day, a storm raged just like the previous days. The foxes all surrounded our cabin, and some of the sailors called it a bad omen. When he was asked the reason, he replied: ‘Because they are not in our pot or on a skewer, which would be a good omen’.»

The year 1596 had been unusually cold, and the year 1597 did not start any better. Snowstorms and severe frosts forced the Dutch to stay in their rooms. However, this did not prevent them from celebrating the “Feast of the Three Kings”. “That’s why we asked the captain”, says Gerrit de Veer. »that in all our misery we could have a little fun, and for that we needed a little wine. We had two pounds of wheat flour. and we baked bread with oil from it. Besides, each of us got a nice biscuit. which we dipped in wine and then ate, and now we felt just as if we were at home among relatives and acquaintances. We had a good time and got stronger and refreshed from it. Besides, we chose the king by lot, and our chief gunner became the lord of Novaja Semlja, the country,

After January 21, the foxes started to disappear and there were more bears again. The days were getting longer and longer and the sailors could start to exercise a little outside. On the 24th, another sailor died — the first one had died right in the fall — after being ill for a longer time and he was buried in the snow. On the 28th, the weather was very beautiful and everyone went outside to breathe fresh air, run and make snowballs, which softened the stiff limbs a little: because everyone was very worn out and so weak from scurvy that even when carrying wood to the hut, they had to rest many times. At the beginning of March, after a storm and blizzard that lasted for many days, the sea was almost free of ice, but when the frost and the storm still persisted and the ship was still stuck in the ice, there was no thought of leaving.

At the beginning of May, the sailors started to get restless and asked Barents if he wasn’t going to start thinking about the journey home soon. This answered that it was not until the end of the month that preparations could be started; if the ship could not be released then, it was necessary to leave with a big boat and a sloop. And May. 20 p. these were started to be equipped in the starting condition. When the loupe was repaired, the sails were fixed, both boats were pushed into the water and food and other necessities were taken to them. Barents wrote a story about the purpose and stages of the trip, which he hung in the chimney of the hut, sealed in a rifle case. 13 p. summer 1597 we left on both boats for the trip home. The sea was calm and the wind good. Itäranta was first traveled to the northern end of Novaja Semlja to the Oranja islands, and from there the journey continued south along the west coast of the island, all the while fighting against dangers and difficulties. »20 p. summer Claas Andriez was very weak and we could clearly see that he would not last much longer. The captain of the big boat therefore came to us and said that Claas Andriez was very unwell, to which Barents replied: ‘I feel as if I don’t have many years to live either!’ We didn’t even know that Barents was so sick, because while we were sitting and talking among ourselves, he was checking the little map that I had made of our trip. At last he put the map down from his hand and said, ‘Gerard, give me something to drink.’ After drinking he became so weak that his eyes turned inside out, and he died so suddenly, that we did not even fail to call the captain, who was in the other boat. The death of Willem Barents grieved us deeply, for he was our leader and our only pilot, in whom we had placed all our trust; but we could not prevent God’s will, and this thought somewhat calmed us down.» Thus died the man whose name is one of the most honored among Dutch sailors, who, more than anyone before him, had revealed the secrets of the Arctic Ocean.

Continuing their journey southward along the western shore of Novaya Semlja, the Dutch had to drag their boats across the ice fields here and there, which often opened in front of them, but often closed and always threatened to crush the boats. They suffered from hunger and thirst, but finally arrived at Cape Nassau. which is on the west coast of the north island. When they once again pushed their boat across the ice field, the ice broke, part of the food was lost and the men almost drowned. In the midst of all kinds of opposition, however, there was sometimes good luck. Seventy duck eggs were found on Ristisaari, »but it is not known how they would be brought along. Finally, one of them took off his pants, tied his legs and put the eggs in them, after which two men carried the pants on a pole and the third carried a gun on his shoulder. Thus they returned after being gone twelve hours, so that already in the boats we thought some accident had happened. The eggs were very welcome and tasted great.» From July 11, there was less ice in the sea. On the 28th, in St. Lawrence Bay near the southern end of the island, we met Russians, whom we had already met in Vaigatshi the previous year, and from them we received a whole bunch of food help. In one place on the beach they found kuirimo, i.e. scurvy grass ( and they got a whole bunch of food help from them. In one place on the beach they found kuirimo, i.e. scurvy grass ( and they got a whole bunch of food help from them. In one place on the beach they found kuirimo, i.e. scurvy grass (Cochlearia officinalis), whose leaves and seeds are an excellent remedy for scurvy. They ate what they found and almost immediately felt the healing effect of the herb. However, the food supplies began to run out: there was only very little bread and no meat at all. In order to shorten the journey, they therefore decided to put out to sea, hoping to meet fishing vessels on the Russian shore, from whom they could get help. This hope did not disappoint. In the dense fog, the boats then separated, and did not meet each other until Kilttusuolo, at the mouth of the Kola fjord. In Kola, Jan Rijp happened to be aground with his ship, which had been separated from Karhusaari the previous year, and rescue was now certain. Rijp was astonished to hear of their exceedingly long and dangerous boat journey; they had walked about 2, 200 kilometers in seventy-three days. After a few days of rest and healthy food, the returning sailors were quite the same. On September 17 Rijp left Kola and on November 1 we arrived happily in Amsterdam. »We were wearing the same clothes as in Novaja Semija,» says Gerrit de Veer, »and we wore a white foxskin cap. In this costume we entered the house where Pieter Hasselaer, a member of the Council of Amsterdam, and chief outfitter of our and Jen Rijp’s ship, lived. He was extremely surprised when he saw us, because we had long been considered dead.» The shipwrecked’s story of their adventures attracted the greatest attention everywhere. De Veer published his travelogue the following year. September Rijp left Kola and 1 p. Nov. we arrived happily in Amsterdam. »We were wearing the same clothes as in Novaja Semija,» says Gerrit de Veer, »and we wore a white foxskin cap. In this costume we entered the house where Pieter Hasselaer, a member of the Council of Amsterdam, and chief outfitter of our and Jen Rijp’s ship, lived. He was extremely surprised when he saw us, because we had long been considered dead.» The shipwrecked’s story of their adventures attracted the greatest attention everywhere. De Veer published his travelogue the following year. September Rijp left Kola and 1 p. Nov. we arrived happily in Amsterdam. »We were wearing the same clothes as in Novaja Semija,» says Gerrit de Veer, »and we wore a white foxskin cap. In this costume we entered the house where Pieter Hasselaer, a member of the Council of Amsterdam, and chief outfitter of our and Jen Rijp’s ship, lived. He was extremely surprised when he saw us, because we had long been considered dead.» The shipwrecked’s story of their adventures attracted the greatest attention everywhere. De Veer published his travelogue the following year. A member of the Amsterdam Council and chief outfitter of our and Jen Rijp’s ship. He was extremely surprised when he saw us, because we had long been considered dead.» The shipwrecked’s story of their adventures attracted the greatest attention everywhere. De Veer published his travelogue the following year. A member of the Amsterdam Council and chief outfitter of our and Jen Rijp’s ship. He was extremely surprised when he saw us, because we had long been considered dead.» The shipwrecked’s story of their adventures attracted the greatest attention everywhere. De Veer published his travelogue the following year.

Captain Heemskerke afterwards made many voyages to the East Indies, and was killed as well as victorious while fighting off Gibraltar against the Spaniards, at the head of a considerable Dutch fleet.

Only in 1871, almost three hundred years later, sailors again visited the place where Barents and his companions had spent the winter; the visitor was the Norwegian captain Carlsen, also known for his many trips to the Arctic Ocean. The Dutch’s room had been preserved so well in the bacteria-free air of the Arctic that it looked like it had been newly built. Everything was in the same condition as when they left, and only bears, foxes and other arctic animals had visited the place to inquire. Outside the hut were large piles of seal, walrus and bear bones. In the room itself, everything was in the same order as when the Dutch left and in every way agreed with de Veer’s pictures. The bedspreads were in place on the wall, the clock on the wall, the guns and rifles as well. Carlsen brought with him two copper cauldrons, goblets, gun barrels, chisels and files, a pair of boots, eighteen cartridges of shot, a flute, a lock, pewter candlesticks, scraps of copperplate prints and three books in Dutch, one of which was the last edition of Mendoza’s »History of China«, when Barents was just on his way to China. One of the books was a sailing manual. Through the purchase, these objects were returned to Holland, where they are now the most expensive memories of the Maritime Museum in The Hague. In 1875, a part of Barents’ diary was also found. where they are now the most expensive memories of The Hague Maritime Museum. In 1875, a part of Barents’ diary was also found. where they are now the most expensive memories of The Hague Maritime Museum. In 1875, a part of Barents’ diary was also found.

When an eminent sailor worthy of Barentsinka could not get further than Novaya Semlja, the Dutch decided that the search for the Northeast Passage was hopeless, and did not continue their attempts in the following periods. The next trip was made by the Englishman Henry Hudson.

Henry Hudson.

There is no information about the earlier stages of Henry Hudson, but he must have sailed widely, as he was considered one of the most skilled sailors in England. He set out in May 1607 on his first voyage by the English Merchant Adventurers, intending to sail directly across the Pole to China; perhaps he was led by Davis’ delusion that there was a melted sea at the pole.

In his small ship with only 12 men, Hudson sailed to the east coast of Greenland and followed it northward. Further north, in his opinion, the atmosphere really cooled down. But the sudden change of weather and the cold northerly winds soon showed the baselessness of such a delusion. Farther north, there was so much drift ice both on the coast of Greenland and out in the sea, that Hudson had to deviate more and more eastward until he came to the Peaks, which were then already known. Hudson penetrated as far as the northern shores of Väippuvuori, but encountered so much ice there that it was impossible to continue the trip. After finding the island, which was probably the present day Jan Mayen, he returned to England. This trip had clearly shown that it was pointless to look for a way to China and India across the Arctic Ocean. However, the journey was not in vain,

But the English Moscow company did not give up the search yet. The next year Hudson was again sent on the voyage; he now had to try via the Northeast Passage. He sailed to the Barents Sea between Huippuvuori and Novaya Semlya, but even there the ice prevented him from getting further north. After following the shores of Novaya Semlja for some time to reach the Arctic Sea, he returned back to England.

Hudson wanted to give it one more try, but the English company had lost the will to spend its money on these useless ventures. Hudson therefore transferred to the service of the Dutch East India Company. At the beginning of April 1609, he sailed to the strait between Vaigatsh and Novaya Semlya, but the season was too early, the ice blocked the way. Besides, when the Dutch fleet snarled, Hudson had to change his plan and go in search of the northwest passage.

Exploring the peaks.

Hudson’s story about the game wealth of the Svalbard Sea soon attracted hunters from many countries. The English got there before others, although at first they had to wash the Basques of Biscay to teach whaling, which was traditionally a specialty of the Basques. From 1610 onwards, the Moscow company sent ships there every year. Through these trips, Viippuvuori gradually became better and better known. Soon the Dutch also came there. In 1613, six ships were sent from England to the Sea of ​​Finland, with Baffin as the chief pilot, who wrote an account of the expedition. The following year an even larger fleet was dispatched, with Baffin again as chief pilot. Robert Fotherby, together with Baffin, made many attempts to explore the north shore, and partly by boat, partly by corn, they finally arrived at that strait, which separates Northeast Finland from Western Finland. They gave names to the strait, as well as to other places, but these have been mixed up with those given later, and the entire nomenclature of the Huippuvuori has thus become helplessly confused. A considerable fleet of Dutchmen had also arrived, and they now, as equals, demanded the right to catch, which the English had denied the previous year.

After this, the Dutch began to sail to the waters of Väippuvuori in ever larger numbers, so that finally the catch fell almost completely into their hands. Their main station was Smeerenberg on Amsterdam Island, in the northwest corner of the West Svalbard. At first, the English concentrated their fishing in the waters east of the Svalbard. They seem to have seen Northeast from that side as well, which, however, got a different name. The Hinlopen strait, which separates Northeast Finland from Western Finland. must have been discovered somehow early on; the name is dutch. In 1630-31, an English expedition, accompanied by Edvard Pelham, spent the winter in Huippuvuori out of necessity: in 1633-34, a Dutch expedition wintered there on purpose.

Northwest Passage.

John Davis.

Even though the Meta incognita trips had ended in such a big disappointment, it didn’t take long before the lust for discovery again attracted me to the same waters. The new men went in search of the north-west passage, which Frobisher had had to throw away because of the gold rush. V. 1585 John Davis, a brave sailor, embarked on an expedition by the English government and wealthy merchants.

Davis penetrated farther north than anyone before him. After sailing past the southern cape of Greenland, he followed the west coast of the country and rose towards the north. On the shore, he thought he met many green and pleasant islands and an ice-free sea. Then turning towards the north-west to reach China, in the 66th latitude he met with a new shore, and a wide opening in the shore, which was named Cumberland Strait; it was also »Meta incognitan». so the Bay of Baffin’s Land, the northern parallel bay of Frobisher Bay. When the season began to grow late and the ice to form, he, after sailing a short distance into the opening, turned back and returned to England. But the next year, and the year after that, he was again outfitted by merchants in the same waters. V. 1587 he with a trifle, with a ship of only twenty tons, sailed farther and farther north towards that wide strait of the sea, which is now called Davis Strait, and reached Baffin Lahti in the 73rd degree of north latitude. The Eskimos came to the sea in their leather canoes and showed with signs that there was a wide sea further to the north. Davis saw no ice and hoped the road was clear. But he didn’t have much longer to continue his journey, before a strong northerly storm hit the ice hard and forced the little ship to turn back. Davis, who had also lost a few men, returned to his homeland depressed, and did not renew his enterprises. But he was sure that the North-West Passage would be found where he had been looking for it, and named the farthest cape he reached »Cape of God’s Mercy». In his opinion, the sea had been almost free of ice and the air somehow mild, and from that he began to think that the atmosphere of the North Pole might be the most wonderful, and the inhabitants of the North Pole nobler than all other peoples, because they were in perpetual light, and with twilight and full moons never saw darkness. Davis only knew the polar regions from experience in the summer; if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. and from that he began to think that the atmosphere of the North Pole might indeed be the most wonderful, and the inhabitants of the North Pole nobler than all other peoples, because they were in perpetual light, and with twilight and full moons never saw darkness. Davis only knew the polar regions from experience in the summer; if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. and from that he began to think that the atmosphere of the North Pole might indeed be the most wonderful, and the inhabitants of the North Pole nobler than all other peoples, because they were in perpetual light, and with twilight and full moons never saw darkness. Davis only knew the polar regions from experience in the summer; if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. and the inhabitants of the North Pole more noble than all other peoples, because they were in perpetual light, and with twilight and full moon never saw darkness. Davis only knew the polar regions from experience in the summer; if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. and the inhabitants of the North Pole more noble than all other peoples, because they were in perpetual light, and with twilight and full moon never saw darkness. Davis only knew the polar regions from experience in the summer; if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth. if he had spent the winter there, he would probably have changed his mind. But Davis’s opinion lasted a long time. Even in the last century, it was dreamed that the polar regions had a melted sea and maybe an ice-free habitable land, the reason was just thought to be another. We had learned to feel the flattening of the earth and it was thought that the earth’s internal heat had a greater effect in the polar regions, because the earth’s surface there was closer to the center of the earth.

After searching in vain for the Northwest Passage, Davis decided to sail to the East Indies around the Cape of Good Hope, despite the Portuguese. V. 1590. a couple of years after the destruction of the “invincible armada”. England being still at war with both Spain and Portugal, he set out on this expedition, but was cut off by an alert enemy on the coast of Morocco, and after a hard fight forced him to return. Davis then joined Cavendish, a privateer who enjoyed the support of the English government, and in 1592 discovered the Falkland Islands on the west side of the southern tip of South America. He was killed in 1605 on the shores of Malacca in a battle against Japanese pirates.

Twenty years passed before the exploration of the northwest passage was continued. Although the expeditions of Henry Hudson and William Baffin did not take place until the next century, we will tell them in the same context, because after them the exploration of the northern shores of North America remained for a long time.

Hudson is looking for the Northwest Passage.

Hudson turned on behalf of the Dutch East India Company in 1609 in search of the Northeast Passage to China, back from Vaigatshi Island, as we said above, because the Dutch fleet was reluctant to sail further. He decided, before returning to Holland empty-handed, to try his luck on the northwest passage, because he had heard from Virginia’s foremost settler, Captain Smith, that the American continent was very narrow at the 40th degree of latitude, and that a strait from sea to sea might be found there.

Hudson followed the coast from Nova Scotia to the south, diverged both into Chesapeake Bay, where there was already an English colony, and Delaware Bay, which he usurped as Holland’s, and then came to the regions of present-day New York and the mouth of the Hudson River, where Verrazzano and probably many other sailors were already visited The lower part of the Hudson River up to Albany is actually a valley sunk into the sea, which the river has carved out when the land was much higher than it is now. The river is therefore difficult to recognize as a river at first, and Hudson had good reason to hope that the long-sought strait would open from it. He ascended it as far as the suburbs of Albany, until there could no longer be any doubt that even now hope was failing. On the way, we met a lot of Indians, with whom we sometimes traded and sometimes skirmished. Hudson took the land as Holland’s property, and before long, before Manhattan, there was a Dutch trading post on the island, in place of the present-day big city. Hudson then intended to return to Holland, but on his way to an English port, he was not counted on to continue his journey, because he was needed in the service of his own country. And it didn’t take long before an English expedition was equipped for him, which was sent to search for the northwest passage, this time, however, further north, in the regions where Frobisher’s and Davis’s searches had been left unfinished. Hudson got one ship, named “Discovery”, and left on the 17th of April. 1610 for his last excursion. He passed Iceland and saw the eruption of Hekla, sailed around Greenland and landed in Hudson Strait at Midsummer. In the middle of the ice, seeing the land sometimes from one side, sometimes from the other side, he pushed forward, naming islands, capes, bays. At last Hudson Bay opened up, and the sailor, thinking he had finally reached the long-sought South Sea, named it >>the Bay of God’s Great Mercy». Following the eastern shore of Lahti or the inland sea, »Discovery» went south until James’s Lahti came to a dead end. Hudson sailed back and forth in Lahti, looking for a strait to the west, but did not find it, and at 10 p. Nov. his ship got stuck and the expedition, without sufficient preparations, had to stay in this remote corner and desolate region to spend the winter. Food supplies ran out, only a little fish and fowl could be obtained from the locality, and finally a mutiny broke out on board. When the ice left and the ship could leave for home, the mutineers forced Hudson, together with a few who remained loyal to him, into the boat, who was left to his own devices. The rebels then sailed the ship home. On the way home, a couple of them lost their lives in a fight against an Eskimo, from whom I guess they were trying to rob food supplies; one starved to death and the rest arrived in England in September, where imprisonment awaited them. Of Hudson and his companions no record was ever obtained, but in legend his reputation lived long in the New Holland colonies. He was one of the most advanced sailors of his time and greatly promoted the knowledge of the Arctic Ocean and its border regions. Of Hudson and his companions no record was ever obtained, but in legend his reputation lived long in the New Holland colonies. He was one of the most advanced sailors of his time and greatly promoted the knowledge of the Arctic Ocean and its border regions. Of Hudson and his companions no record was ever obtained, but in legend his reputation lived long in the New Holland colonies. He was one of the most advanced sailors of his time and greatly promoted the knowledge of the Arctic Ocean and its border regions.

The discovery of Hudson Bay raised new hopes. In 1612, Thomas Button sailed there on the same ship as Hudson and explored the shores of the bay all the way to the Nelson River. At Nelson’s mouth he spent his winter in misery. The sought-after path ran away again into the unknown, even though the hopes had already been so good.

William Baffin.

William Baffin had already made many trips to the Arctic Ocean when he set off in 1614 as captain Bylot’s pilot to continue Hudson’s work. Despite the ice barriers, the Hudson Strait was sailed and its northwestern shores were explored in particular, and accurate tide observations were made all the time, because the tides should have been reliable indications of the sea ahead if the strait existed. Baffin drew up an accurate map of the coast and determined the locations through astronomical observations. He used the distance of the moon to determine the longitude. As the conclusion of his researches, he stated that if there was a passage westward from Hudson Strait, it could be nothing but a narrow strait; the main channel had to leave Davis Strait.

Bylot and Baffin were therefore sent again in 1616 on a voyage of discovery on the “Discovery”, which had already made so many trips to the same waters. This time, the entire Baffi Bay was explored up to Smith Strait, through which it is connected to the Arctic Ocean. Bylot and Baffin traveled more than 5° north of the northernmost point of Davis. At first the ice was a bit of a hindrance, but at the end of June they quickly broke up and the trip went so well that both sailors thought their attempt would be successful. But finally the lands on both sides approached each other, so that it seemed that a dead end lay ahead, and »Discovery« had to follow the western shores of the bay and start the return journey. Baffin passed through both Jones Sound and Lancaster Sound, but they were probably too packed with ice to land on. And in no case did they offer such a spacious channel as would have been necessary in these icy seas so that it could have been used as a trade route. Baffin therefore thought he had solved the northwest passage question and had shown that there was no such passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific that would have qualified as a trade route. He did not urge the search to continue. For the rest of his life, he served the British East India Company and was killed in the attack on Ormuz in 1622.

Jens Munk.

However, even later attempts were made to sail through Hudson Bay to the Pacific Ocean, before the search was given up. In 1619, a Danish expedition headed by Jens Munk, one of the most prominent captains of the Danish navy, set out there. He had already familiarized himself with sailing in the Arctic Ocean in the waters of Novaya Semlja. The Danish East India Company had been formed in 1616 and this had awakened the desire for overseas businesses in the kingdom. The tidal observations of Button’s expedition had suggested that there might have been a sought-after strait in the region of the present-day Churchill River; so we were going to go to those areas to continue searching. Munk’s first work explored Ungava Bay, which is on the north shore of Labrador, and then sailed near the mouth of the Churchill River, remaining there for the winter. But the fate of the expedition turned out to be very sad. Scurvy wrought such hideous ravages, that in the end there was nothing alive but Munk himself and two other men. They barely made it back to Denmark on their smaller ship. The geographical results of the trip were minor.

Luke Foxe and Thomas James.

Luke Foxe and Thomas Thomas James accomplished more. James, who in 1631 explored the entire southwestern shore of Hudson Bay and showed that the bay was completely closed by land. Each led his own little expedition, and although both somehow sailed the same route, they did not meet each other until they had almost completed their work. Foxe then explored Foxe’s Channel on the north-west side of the bay, from whence Bylot and Baffin had turned back, while James spent the winter in the southern part of Hudson Bay, in the bay which takes its name from him, suffering much misery. In 1632, he also searched for a strait in the northern part of the bay, but without getting any big ones. Both published a travelogue, and Foxe published a map showing Hudson Bay, Baffin Yacht, and the intervening waters, drawn with remarkable accuracy.

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