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The golden age of piracy.

Spain, therefore, did not seem to have much reason to fear competition from England, and still less from Holland. But on the shores of both these countries a brave and hardened seafaring population had grown up, who did not intend to remain without the newly discovered riches beyond the seas, even if they had to fight, and no matter how many papal bulls protected them. They did not even ask the government of their own country for permission when riches were lured on foreign shores, and least of all did they fear a fight. The “dogs of the sea” that began to appear in the waters of Devon around this time. from the shores of Dorset and Zealand, loved the stormy free waters and their stormy free lives, though they sailed with the knowledge that they would be captured and hanged or shot in the sinks, if a Spaniard or a Portuguese should happen to meet with sufficient force. But for the most part these free-sailers were well-equipped and more nimble to attack themselves than to wait for others to attack.

Already in 1499, Ojeda met the English on the northern coast of South America. The French, on the other hand, started sailing to Brazil right at the beginning of the 16th century, considering it as their own, despite all the objections of the Portuguese. After the year 1527, the beaches owned by Spain in America were visited by foreigners from all over the world, posing as pirates, when peaceful trade was forbidden to them. In Africa, there was competition with the Portuguese, foreign sailors started moving in the East Indies as well. These attacks became more and more common, especially after Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne of England, because in contrast to the devout Catholic Queen Mary, who was married to Philip II, the new queen was a Protestant, which made the religious conflict with Spain even sharper. At that time there was a great patriotic and national revival going on through the people of England, which took the young queen with it. The whole nation breathed new life. Elisabeth could not have married Philip even if she had wanted to, and she could not have kept her “dogs of the sea” from the Spanish Sea (the Spanish Main, as the Caribbean Sea was called among sailors, although the name originally referred to the shores of that sea). These assumed all the responsibility, as well as the dangers, and although a breach of the country’s peace was to be feared, yet the envy roused by the sources of wealth in Spain and Portugal was so great that both England and Holland willingly allowed their subjects to start a guerilla war in order to divide the booty. The “dogs of the sea” plundered ships and cities, even though it was a time of peace, and filled the queen’s coffers with Spanish gold. The profession was attractive. though the gallows awaited the pirates mercilessly if they were caught, and so productively that the free-sailers soon traveled in fleets. They developed their country’s sailing ability to a great extent, because without them the oceans would have remained a “forbidden road” for the Portuguese and Spanish for a long time. »Dogs of the sea» and »kings of the sea», they therefore laid the foundations of both Dutch and English naval power. because without them the oceans would have long remained a “forbidden road” for the Portuguese and the Spanish. »Dogs of the sea» and »kings of the sea», they therefore laid the foundations of both Dutch and English naval power. because without them the oceans would have long remained a “forbidden road” for the Portuguese and the Spanish. »Dogs of the sea» and »kings of the sea», they therefore laid the foundations of both Dutch and English naval power.

The French, although they were enemies of the English from the old days, were united with them in their attacks on the colonies of both kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula.

There were many of them who gained fame in this pirate war and who were considered national heroes at home, although they practiced other professions besides piracy, which our time may consider even more shameful. The English began to broker the slave trade to the West Indies, and the most famous slave trader of the time was the sea hero John Hawkins.

John Hawkins.

John Hawkins, who was of a wealthy Devonshire sailing family, went to the coast of Guinea and there began to seize Portuguese slave ships, from which he secretly took the negroes he robbed to the Spanish colonies of the West Indies. Although Queen Elizabeth condemned the slave trade as an abominable act that brings the vengeance of heaven upon its practitioner, she nevertheless knighted Hawkins and gave him a ship of the crown when the Spanish took a couple of ships from him. The slave trade paid off so well that Hawkins eventually had a whole fleet, the flagship of which was named “Jesus”: when it cannot be assumed that he named his ship that way out of impiety, it can only be considered as a testimony to how even the most shameful and cruel deeds of those times beautified under the guise of religion. Descendant of Elizabeth. James I, gave royal licenses to the Guinean slave-trading ships and his followers started to become sharecroppers themselves. In the eighteenth century, the English were the biggest slave traders in the world, but to their credit, let it be said that they then abolished that shameful profession.

John Hawkins was a brave warrior, fought many hard battles and as a vice-admiral took part in the destruction of the “invincible armada”. For the rest of his life, he was the most important official in the English navy.

Francis Drake.

The most famous of the British sea heroes of this time was Francis Drake, who at the same time rehabilitated himself as an explorer. He too was from Devonshire and received a good upbringing by his cousin John Hawkins. He began his seafaring career on the Hawkins slave ships and was a captain at the age of twenty-three. His next career was that of a pirate, but he ended his life as a savior of his country.

V. 1570 Drake received an express right of privateering from the queen and immediately left for the Spanish sea to try his luck. With three small ships, he conquered and plundered a city called Nombre de Dios on the Isthmus of Panama, then penetrated with his men across the isthmus, and from the top of a tree, when he saw the Pacific for the first time, he promised that he would still “sail in that sea in an English ship”. He got help on this raid from runaway Spanish slaves who waged a guerilla war against their masters. With a large booty, Drake returned to his ships and arrived in Plymouth in August 1573. With his money he equipped three frigates and fought as a volunteer in Ireland. Having then received a state grant from the queen, he equipped himself for the expedition, which was his most famous. He decided with five ships to sail through the Strait of Magalhães, where no English ship had yet visited, to reach Peruvian waters for gold. The ships were small and had only 166 men in total. 15 p. Nov. 1577 Drake set out to sea as secretly as possible so that word of the trip would not spread. Soon we were on the open sea, »there was nothing to see but the sea below us and the air above us, while our eyes looked at the wonderful works of God, which he has created innumerable animals both small and large». Continuing the journey with good luck, »as if we were in an amusement park, we hurtik. 5 p. we met the beach of Brazil». In the estuary of the La Plata river, two ships were abandoned — the smallest were sailboats of only fifteen tons. In the port of Juliano — the same place where the rebellion against Magalhães was fought — Captain Doughty, who had incited the rebellion against Drake, was tried and executed. 21 p. of August, Drake entered the Strait of Magalhães and passed through it in sixteen days, but then a violent storm drove his ships out to sea, turning them already in sight of Cape Horn, which Drake thus discovered, though he does not seem to have fully understood its character. Captain Wynter lost his leader and returned home to England with two ships, not meeting him at the rendezvous. So Francis Drake was alone on the “Golden Night”, but he was also where he wanted to be, on the gold coast of South America, and he wasn’t going to leave there empty-handed. He sailed on and arrived on the coast of Chile. From the Indians who were at war with the Spaniards, he heard of a large ship full of treasure in the port of Valparaiso. An Indian himself came to guide, and immediately the “Golden Deer” sailed into the harbor without arousing the suspicions of the Spaniards, as it was the first foreign ship that had yet moved in the waters of Chile. Drake was able to land right next to the Spanish ship, and the English armed force—Drake now had only 60 men in all—captured the ship before its men could recover from their surprise. The ship had a lot of gold and other valuable goods, such as two thousand vessels of Chilean wine. An armed force was sent ashore to rob the city of more gold, and Drake, richer still, after this easy victory, set out on his journey. Drake’s arrival had been heard at Coquimbo, and there was such a considerable crowd there that he had to set out empty-handed. In Arica, he robbed three small ships and found 57 silver bars in one. But he had a bad time in the port of Lima, the capital of Peru. Word had reached there from Valparaiso that there was a dangerous enemy on the coast, and the governor had gathered hundreds of men there and set out with two ships to seize the “Golden Hirve”, which was in a depression in front of the harbor. The Spaniards had the land wind in their sails and they approached quickly, but luckily Drake also got his share of the same land wind at the last moment and was able to escape, even though he had already been within bullet range. The Spaniards could not chase far, because in their haste to leave they did not remember to take snacks. This adversity was amply compensated by the “Caga Fuego”, a galleon that was taking an expensive cargo to Paraca. In pursuit of it, Drake on the way hijacked another ship, from which 80 pounds of gold were obtained. On the shores of Quito, Cape S.

DrakeHa was now such a valuable catch that it was time to start thinking about the journey home. But which way was best to sail? Through the Straits of Magalhães would have been the shortest, but he feared that there might be Spanish ships lurking there. He therefore descended towards the north and decided to look for a passage to the Atlantic from the Pacific side, which Frobisher, with his companion, was looking for on the opposite side. So he sailed along the coast towards the north, still deviating ashore to increase his prey, when he passed a town. From the coast of North America, he then departed to the outer sea to be able to sail more freely. Drake thought the West Coast of America ran due north, but after a few weeks of sailing towards the northwest, he surprisingly saw that the coast had indeed followed along. He had come to the coast of California, which, however, the Spaniards had already discovered before him. There he went to the harbor, I guess the “Golden Gate”, on the edge of which the city of San Francisco is today, to repair the damage to his ship. At that time, the region was still a desolate wilderness, except for the native Indian tribes, with whom Drake established the best relations. When the English, having repaired their ships, set out again on their journeys, the Indians wept, sighed and wringed their hands, as if they had lost their best relatives. They built big farewell bonfires on the beach and the English waved their hats. except for the native Indian tribes, with whom Drake established the best relations. When the English, having repaired their ships, set out again on their journeys, the Indians wept, sighed and wringed their hands, as if they had lost their best relatives. They built big farewell bonfires on the beach and the English waved their hats. except for the native Indian tribes, with whom Drake established the best relations. When the English, having repaired their ships, set out again on their journeys, the Indians wept, sighed and wringed their hands, as if they had lost their best relatives. They built big farewell bonfires on the beach and the English waved their hats.

This happened on July 23, 1579. Drake was still sailing north and had now entered completely unknown waters. The coast was followed all the way to 48 degrees latitude, the northern border of the present-day United States, — however, others do not think that Drake traveled further than Cape Blanco, — but when the strait was not found and the weather began to turn rough, Drake had to change his travel plan again. It would have been too daring to continue the journey further north by chance, too dangerous to return through the Spanish seas, so he decided to sail the “Victoria” route around the country. So not even Drake could disprove the myth about the Anian Strait, which was believed so strongly that it was even marked on the maps. Towards the end of the century the Spaniards seem to have made a few attempts to find this strait and gain possession of its western end, before others came from the east to discover it, but they must not have sailed very far. The Greek Apostolos Valerianos. whose Spanish name was Juan de Fuca, claimed to have sailed from the west end of the Strait of Anian twenty days’ journey, but of course it was a fraud, even if it was apt to increase belief in the existence of the strait. This betrayal is commemorated by the name of the strait south of Vancouver Island. for example, it was apt to increase faith in the existence of the strait. This betrayal is commemorated by the name of the strait south of Vancouver Island. for example, it was apt to increase faith in the existence of the strait. This betrayal is commemorated by the name of the strait south of Vancouver Island.

Drake disembarked before turning away from the shores of America, claiming the land he found for Queen Elizabeth and naming it New Albion. On the 29th of September he then spread his sails and bravely set out for the Pacific, the coast of Asia and the Moluccas being the extent of the voyage. The trip went happily, the winds were favorable, there were few storms. The Spaniards had already shown on their many voyages that it was indeed easy to sail across the Pacific Ocean towards the west on the trade winds, although it was more difficult in the opposite direction, unless the sailor felt the returning westerly winds of higher latitudes. — On the 4th of November Drake arrived at Ternate, whose ruler, hoping for new advantages from his new rival, received him in the best possible way. After loading up on cloves and resting for a few weeks, the English adventurer left on Christmas. 10 p. journey to continue. Destruction was finally to come on the shores of Celebee, when the »Golden deer« ran over a roach. Fortunately, the bottom held, the ship did not leak; but eight cannon and three tons of cloves had to be thrown into the sea before the ship lightened and left the sloop. Drake replenished his load at Baratan, whose natural richness aroused his admiration, and then departed for Java. But soon he heard that a great fleet was near, and fearing to be caught, he set out with more haste, sailing between Java and Bali, and round the south of Java, because the Portuguese avoided the waters on that side because of their dangerous currents. However, he was able to leave the Indian Ocean only at the end of March, and did not reach the Cape of Good Hope until June 15. There were then 50 men and three barrels of water in the “Golden Moose”. July 12 p. crossed the equator, 16 p. stopped at the shore of Guinea to take water. September 11 d. Drake visited Terceira in the Azores, although hardly even there as an invited guest, and on 26 d September 1580 the “Golden Stag” landed in Plymouth harbor. Thus was completed the second journey round the country, and the first made by an Englishman. It had taken two years and ten months, but Drake, as we have seen, had many other things to do on his way. He brought with him one and a half million pounds (37 1/2 million marks) in loot. The voyage aroused the greatest enthusiasm in England, more than the greatness of the catch because of the bravery of the sailors. At first, the queen doubted that it was fitting for her to show her favor to a man who had admittedly practiced ordinary piracy. But when the king of Spain then demanded that Drake be punished for himself, Elisabeth made her decision, traveled to Drake’s ship as a guest, knighted him, promised to answer for all his actions and allowed the jewels stolen by Drake to be attached to her crown. He ordered that the “golden deer” be preserved as a national monument.

Cavendish and the third trip around the world.

Drake’s attempt was too successful not to be urged to continue. Thomas Cavendish, a wild man who had lost all his fortune through extravagance, set out from Plymouth in July 1586 in three small ships with 123 men to exactly imitate Drake’s voyage. After plundering a Portuguese city in Sierra Leone — Portugal had been united with Spain in 1580 and England was in civil war with Spain after 1585 — he sailed across the Atlantic to the coast of Brazil and arrived at the end of November at Port Desire, on the coast of Patagonia, at the mouth of the Rio Deseado. There were seen immense numbers of seals, so strong that it was difficult for four men to keep them alive; there were many fish, and birds that could not fly because they had no wings. Patagonians were also seen, that had 18 inch long legs, and skirmished with them. At the narrowest point of the strait of Magalhães, the remains of a Spanish settlement were found, which Captain Sarmiento had founded three years earlier to block the way through the strait. He had built four castles and several churches, but through the attacks of the countrymen and famine, the settlement had fallen terribly fast, others had gone to Chile to seek corn, but had perished on the way, and only twenty people had survived. Cavendish, after hearing these sad incidents, named the place Port Famine, which name it still bears. After weathering many storms, Cavendish arrived on the coast of Chile and then the banditry and fighting began. He attacked all the smaller Spanish ports, plundered and burned and plundered nineteen ships of greater value, especially a great treasure ship of the Spanish government, from which an exceedingly abundant booty was obtained. He then sailed across the Pacific following the same route as Magalhães, stopping at the Ladrones, the Philippines, the Moluccas and Java. In September 1588, he landed in the only ship that reached Plymouth harbor, after traveling around the country in two years and fifty days. It is said that his sailors wore silk clothes, the sails were made of damask cloth and the mastheads were wrapped in gold cloth. In 1591, however, he was short of money again and planned to make the same trip again, but this attempt was very unsuccessful, Cavendish had to return back already from the Strait of Magalhães. On the way home he died and was buried in the ocean. John Davis was with us on this trip.

The Invincible Armada.

Guerrilla warfare on the oceans was just the last straw that broke the camel’s back. Philip II wanted to have the Habsburg family of England annexed to the kingdom and restored to the Roman Church; when it was not possible through marriage, he decided to conquer England by force of arms. Messages began to arrive on the banks of the Thames about the huge fleet that he built in all his ports and especially in Lisbon, because the capital of Portugal was at that time the best place for shipbuilding in the peninsula, because by swimming along the Tajo, you could get excellent timber from the highlands. Although in 1587, Francis Drake with thirty ships bravely sailed to the port of Cadiz and destroyed 10,000 tons of Spanish ships there, but even though he had, in his own words, “trimmed King Philip’s beard”, then the attack could not be prevented from it, only somewhat delayed. King Philip completed his armada and sent it in 1588 on a journey towards the shores of England. Queen Elizabeth received from him the following Latin poem, which contained in abbreviated form the demands of Spain:

»Te beto ne pergas Bello defendere Belgas;
Quae Dracus eripuit nunc restituantur oportet;
Quas Pater evert jubeo te condere cellas:
Religio Papae fac restituatur ad unguem.»
So England was forbidden to help the Belgians, with whom Philip was at war, it had to give away what Drake had plundered and finally restore the power of the Pope and the Catholic faith. Queen Elizabeth, of whom King Henry III of France did not unsurprisingly say that she was »la plus fine femme du monde» (the sharpest woman in the world), after hearing this wonderful ultimatum »ex tempore«: »Ad Graecas, bone rex, fiant mandata kalendas. » (May your demands, good king, remain in the “Greek calendar” i.e. indefinitely.) The High Admiral Lord Howard of Effingham was already equipped to receive the enemy: his Closest men were Vice-Admirals Hawkins, Drake and Frobisher. It was to be a clash that would not only decide the fate of England, but also the control of the seas.

Ships had evolved quite a bit since the first great voyages of discovery took place. Their size had needed to grow, their sailing ability had improved and especially their setup had improved. There were many different ship models in practice, including galleys to be rowed by the trading powers of the Mediterranean, even if they did not want to succeed in the big waves of the outer sea. Philip II’s armada is said to have had 132 ships with a total deadweight of 59,000 tons. The biggest ship was 1300 tons, but thirty were 100 tons smaller. A third or maybe half were freighters. The Armada had 21,600 soldiers and over 8,000 sailors. Against this, England only had 37 actual warships, but a much larger number of merchant ships had been collected, so that the English commander-in-chief had altogether 197 ships, however, most are very small. The English navy numbered 16,000 or 17,000 men, most of them sailors. The Spanish had more cannons, but their marksmanship was inferior.

King Philip II’s attempt was dogged by bad luck from the start. Smaller ships couldn’t reach the Channel in the first place. The English were already at the mouth of the Channel. They did not give themselves up to close combat, but did whatever damage they could, for although their ships were smaller, they were instead more mobile. The large Spanish warships were clumsy, especially when they were undermanned.

The Duke of Medina Sidonia, who commanded the armada, first landed at the port of Calais, in order to communicate with the Duke of Parma, who commanded Philip’s forces in Belgium. The English made 28 p. July. at night, a fuel ship attack on the port of Calais. There was great confusion in the Armada, some fled to the sea without even having to raise their anchor, others, however, left in better order. Outside Calais, the English fleet was waiting, and a fierce fight ensued. Although the English could not seize the Spanish ships, they destroyed several and their sailing ability and shooting accuracy were so much superior that Medina Sidonia was powerless. His great ships were so helpless that only a reversal of the wind saved them from drifting on the coast of Flanders. The Spanish Commander-in-Chief could think of no other way than to return to Spain, but he did not even dare to try the Channel anymore, but sailed around Scotland and Ireland. The English fleet chased the fleeing armada all the way to the front of the Forth fjord. The Medina Sidonia continued heading north until her pilots said it was time to turn around. Until then, the Spanish had lost relatively few ships and men. If the weather had been normal, the armada probably would have been able to return with relatively small losses. But the summer of 1588 was unspeakably stormy. The damaged and weakened Spanish ships were unable to fight the storms coming from the Atlantic. At least nineteen were shipwrecked off the coast of Scotland and Ireland; The shipwrecked rescued to Ireland were mercilessly killed. Many ships were lost at sea into the unknown. At least half, perhaps more, of the ships of the invincible armada were destroyed, and those that survived had lost much of their men to scurvy and starvation.

This case was of enormous importance. Apart from its effects on European politics, it destroyed Spain and Portugal’s supremacy at sea with one blow. It severed all the ties which had prevented the northern maritime powers from sending their fleets to both the Indies and to all the seas of the world. Both powers of the Iberian Peninsula would still have wanted to prevent this, but they could not. With the destruction of Philip’s mighty armada, the sea power of England and Holland, and to a lesser extent France, began.

The following year, after the loss of the armada, Drake already besieged Coruña and forced the Spanish army in Spain to retreat. Although he had to retreat again due to a general popular uprising, so great was the fear he caused that the body of the patron saint of Spain, St. Jago, was temporarily moved away from the cathedral of Santiago to a safer place. Ships and treasures were plundered on all seas. When Philip II threatened to send a new armada, Cadiz was plundered, the ships in its harbor were destroyed, the war goods were burned. In 1595 an expedition was made to the West Indies; Although Drake and Hawkins were killed, they had previously done unprecedented damage to the Spanish mainland.

In North America, the way to establish colonies was clear, in Africa, trade with the Western powers grew and the route to the East Indies was free. The sea dogs and sea kings had done their job. The Spaniards had despised them in the beginning, then learned to fear and hate them, and finally to respect them, like Richard Grenville, who was killed in a pitched sea battle off the Azores. He is perhaps the most descriptive representative of this generation of sailors and heroes. In the summer of 1591, an English fleet ambushed the Spanish treasure fleet near the Azores, which was supposed to return from the West Indies. But at the same time as the treasure fleet arrived, a large Spanish detachment of warships arrived from home in the Azores, which was so superior that the English admiral, whose men were sick and whose ships were worn out from being at sea for a long time, dared to engage in battle. Sir Richard Grenville, who had Drake’s former ship the “Revenge,” however, stoutly refused to turn away from the enemy, saying he would rather die than dishonor himself, his country, and the queen’s ship; he promised to pass through the midst of the enemy’s fleet, whether others followed or not. The battle began at three o’clock in the afternoon, and “it raged cruelly all evening”, says Raleigh in his account. The Spaniards tried time after time to get possession of Grenville’s ship, but each time they were beaten back, sometimes to their ships, sometimes to the sea. The battle lasted all night, and “as the day grew, our men became fewer”. »Revenge» was in a desperate state. »All the powder in the last barrel had been used up, all the guns had been cut off, forty of the best men fell and most of those who survived were wounded, the masts were all broken into the sea and the ropes, the sails in tatters.» But Grenville was still standing. Although wounded in the head, he refused to surrender, ordered the axeman to pierce and sink the ship, for they “entrusted themselves to God, and to the mercies of no one else; but since they had fought as brave and stout men should, they should not diminish the honor of their people by prolonging their own lives by a few hours, perhaps a few days». However, the men had a different opinion because the Spaniards offered good terms. Grenville was no longer obeyed, he was taken to the Spanish admiral, where he was treated with great respect. But on the third day he died and his last words were: Here I die, Richard Grenville, with a cheerful and calm mind, because I have ended my life as a good soldier should, who has fought for his country, his queen, his religion, and his honor; from which my soul most joyfully departs from this body and must always leave behind it the everlasting fame of a brave and true soldier, a soldier who has fulfilled his duty as it should be.»

Such a spirit lived in the “kings of the sea”, but it was also the spirit that lived in the entire English nation during Elizabeth’s time, which inflamingly and clearly speaks of the works of even its most advanced poets. Shakespeare’s “Henry V” was the genius of the Elizabethan era.

Early settlement attempts in North America.

The Spanish would have quickly usurped the shores of North America too, if they had found even an iota of gold or silver there. But only copper was found there. What reason did they have to establish farming colonies, as long as there were gold and silver lands yet to be usurped? Their entrepreneurship thus turned towards the south. The supposed lack of precious metals in the first place influenced that North America did not become a Romani country.

The first news inhabitants of North America arrived with other intentions. They were fleeing religious persecution, which at that time was raging in Europe. The Huguenots of France had begun to immigrate en masse to the Protestant neighboring countries, when the crown had declared them to be scumbags and, on the order of the Pope, had decided to exterminate them. Admiral Coligny. who perceived that the country would thus lose its best forces, decided to establish French colonies in the New World, so that the Huguenots’ desire for freedom would not harm the country, but on the contrary would promote its expansion and strengthening. Without asking Portugal’s permission, Coligny in 1555 took over the beautiful bay of Rio de Janeiro, where at that time there was no Portuguese settlement, and the Huguenots founded a colony there, which might have remained French through time,

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