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World’s largest bacteria discovered

  There are countless bacteria around us, but we can’t see them, because the individual bacteria are very small, and the diameter of most bacteria is between 0.5 μm and 5 μm, and their true appearance can only be glimpsed under a microscope. However, recently, some scientists have discovered “giant bacteria” up to 2cm long, which has changed people’s understanding of the bacterial world.
The discovery of Thioroccus ornate

  Olivier Gross of the University of French Andres discovered a strange white strip-shaped organism growing on the surface of the leaves of the Flemish mangrove in the mangroves of the Guadeloupe Islands in the Caribbean. After 5 years of research, Jean-Marie Volland, a marine biologist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the United States, and his partners finally confirmed that this is actually a bacterium! It is the world’s largest bacteria – Thioroccus ornate.
  The discovery of Thioraccus ornate is not the first time in human history that a giant bacterium has been discovered, but surpasses the Namibian Thiatocaccus discovered by scientists in 1997. Namibian Thiophila and Thioroccus flamboyant belong to the same family, Thiorocidae, with a length of 0.75 mm. Compared with ordinary bacteria, it is considered a “giant” in bacteria, and it has also maintained its “world” status for more than 20 years. Largest bacteria” record.
  The length of Thioroccus splendens can reach 2 centimeters, and it can be called a “giant beast” in the bacterial world. It is 50 times the volume of the largest known bacteria and 5000 times that of most bacteria. This is precisely because of this, the Date team I never thought it was a bacterium until now.
  Thioroccus ornate is a single bacterial cell that is filamentous in shape and, because it is white, looks like a stick of white “spaghetti”.
  Thioroccus florida belongs to a sulfur-oxidizing γ-proteobacteria, not only creating the historical record of the largest bacteria, but also the first and only one discovered to isolate its genetic material in a eukaryotic way.
characteristics of bacteria

  Despite its large size, S. ornateis is still a bacterium. Let us review the characteristics of bacteria here.
  The main components of bacteria are cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and cell wall. Some bacteria also have special structures such as capsule, pili, and flagella that other bacteria do not have.
  Bacteria are prokaryotes, so they are generally single-celled, with a simple structure, lacking a cytoskeleton and membranous organelles. The most well-known examples are the mitochondria and chloroplasts that we learned in biology textbooks when we were in school. Bacteria are the most numerous and diverse group of microorganisms, including spirilla, vibrio, spirochete, actinomycetes, bacilli, cocci, mycoplasma, rickettsia, and chlamydia.
  Bacteria mainly reproduce in the form of asexual binary division. When the bacteria grow to a certain period, the nucleoids divide once to form two nucleoids of equal size and the new nuclei will move to both sides. Finally, the cells are divided into two. Centrally, new cell membranes are formed, and cell division is a continuous process. The daughter cells of some bacteria after division separate to form a single bacterium, while others do not separate to form their own special arrangement, such as streptococcus and streptobacter.

Why is Thioroccus ornate so big?

  As early as the 1950s, American scientists such as Shecht discovered that the faster the bacterial cell grows, the larger the cell will be. More importantly, the research breakthrough used a mathematical formula to describe the relationship between the size of the bacteria and the growth rate, that is to say, as long as the cell growth rate is known, the cell growth rate can be inferred more accurately. size. In general, the larger the size of the bacteria, the harder it is for nutrients to get into the cells, which largely limits the bacteria from getting bigger. The researchers believe that S. orientalis grew so large because it had more advanced cells and complex tissues that increased its surface area so it could absorb more nutrients and energy. In addition, Thiotoccus flamboyant can make good use of the chemical energy of sulfur in the sediments at the bottom of the mangrove sulfur-containing waters, which is one of the reasons for its huge size.
  The discovery of Thioroccus ornate has subverted people’s understanding of bacteria, but human exploration of the microcosm has never stopped. There is still a long way to go for human beings to understand and study microorganisms.

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