Vladimir? Semyonovich Vysotsky (1938-1980) has multiple identities in Russia: he is a well-known actor and a smart essayist, and he is also an admirable and talented troubadour in the 1960s and 1970s. poet. Although his songs are recited in the streets and alleys, in fact, because they have not been officially published, the spread of these songs is only achieved by the audience’s transcriptions through tape recorders. Vysotsky created about 600 hymns in his life. His works did not have the high-quality conditions of a recording studio, did not have the careful creation of a professional producer, and did not even have a decent guitar as an accompaniment, but the crude creation conditions did not affect people’s liking for their songs. Vysotsky’s work was not allowed to be officially published until after Vysotsky’s death.
Vysotsky was born in 1938. His childhood was spent in a dilapidated apartment on Moscow’s First Meixiang Street, where 38 households shared one bathroom. Vysotsky’s father, Semyon Vladimirnovich, was from Kyiv. He had participated in the Soviet Union’s Great Patriotic War and served as a colonel in the Soviet Army’s signal corps. His mother, Nina? Maximovna is an excellent German translator. The family was an important influence on Vysotsky’s poetic talents in adulthood: Vysotsky’s grandfather Vladimir ? Semyonovich Vysotsky (whose name was Vysotsky) and his cousin Vysotskaya were both poets, and grandmother Dalia Alexeyevna was a hospital beautician and obsessed in drama. Vysotsky’s uncle Alexei? Vladimirnovich was a writer who, like Vysotsky’s father, also participated in the Great Patriotic War and was awarded the Order of the Red Banner three times for his bravery in the war. The great Patriotic War experience of uncle and father accumulated material for Vysotsky’s creation in adulthood.
However, such a big family did not bring Vysotsky a happy childhood. In 1941, the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union broke out, so Vysotsky, who was only 4 years old at the time, had to retreat with his mother to the village of Vorontsovka in Orenburg Oblast for refuge. Two years later, the mother and son returned to Moscow to start a new life. But the good times didn’t last long. Vysotsky, who started elementary school in 1945, had to accept the divorce of his parents. The family changes made the poet start to grow psychologically when he was young. From 1947 to 1949, Vysotsky lived with his father and stepmother in the Eberswald region of Germany. In this short period of two years, the clever Vysotsky learned to play the piano. In October 1949, Vysotsky returned to Moscow and studied at the Moscow 186 Boys School. In 1953, out of his love for theatre, Vysotsky joined the drama group of the Teacher’s House. However, under the pressure of his parents, Vysotsky was admitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering of the Moscow Institute of Architectural Engineering. With a love for drama in his heart, the idea of dropping out of school often lingered in Vysotsky’s mind. On New Year’s Eve in 1955, when Vysotsky finished the painting assignment left by the school, he poured the remaining half bottle of ink on the completed drawing and said: “Forget it! There is still half a year, I have to prepare Go to the Drama Academy, and this is not my (professional).”
As Vysotsky wished, in June 1956, he was successfully admitted to the art school attached to the Moscow Model Art Theater. While studying at art school, Vysotsky met his first wife Iza? Zhukova, they entered the palace of marriage after graduation. Vysotsky’s first role was as Porfi Petrovich in the educational drama “Crime and Punishment”, and later he played the role of student Petty in the film “Peers”. In 1960, Vysotsky came to prominence in the national newspaper “Soviet Culture” in the promotional article “Nineteen People of the Moscow Art Institute”. After graduating from art school, Vysotsky worked successively in the Pushkin Theater and the Pieces Theater, playing dozens of roles. In 1961, Vysotsky fell in love with his second wife Lyudmila Abramova while filming the thrilling film “Flight 713 Requested to Land”, and they married in 1965. But the second marriage lasted only two years, and Vysotsky parted ways with Lyudmila. In September 1970, Vysotsky began his third love life with the French actress Marina Vladi.
An important turning point in Vysotsky’s acting career occurred in 1964, when he joined the Moscow Taganka Theater because of the favor of the then chief director of the theater Lyubimov. In the Taganka Theater Vysotsky has participated in “Pugachev”, “Hamlet”, “The Cherry Orchard”, “Crime and Punishment” and other plays. It is worth mentioning that in 1971, Vysotsky became famous for playing the role of Hamlet in Shakespeare’s famous play “Hamlet” at the Taganka Theater. In the play, Vysotsky made full use of his proficient poetic skills , gave an in-depth interpretation of the role, which became a milestone in Vysotsky’s acting career. The poet’s works frequently touch on issues such as life and death, human mission and responsibility, and the interrelationship of human beings, which echo the theme of “Hamlet”. The most obvious sign is the poem “My Hamlet” written in 1972. The poet uses the form of a lyrical monologue to express his philosophical thinking about the fate of himself and his contemporaries through the image of Hamlet:
My Brain , like a spider hungry for knowledge,
it tries to understand everything: movement and deadness.
But ideas and science gain nothing
when they are everywhere refuted.
Vysotsky has acted in 30 films in his life, among which the more famous ones are “Little Tragedy”, “A Short Meeting”, “The Master of the Jungle” and “A Bad Good Man”. His acting ability was fully demonstrated in “A Bad Good Man”, which was loved by audiences at home and abroad. In May 1974, Vysotsky won the Charybdis Award at the National Film Festival of Dormina, Italy. .
Russian literature in the 1960s had a special development when Khrushchev came to power. Troubadour poetry took advantage of the creative freedom given by the times, and was loved by the people at that time for its shortness, refinement and authentic content. Accompanied by the simple melody of the guitar, the poets sang simple and unpretentious lyrics with a lively rhythm. The content not only praises the diligence and integrity of the working people and the heroic dedication of the soldiers, but also uses subtext to reflect real life and expose the dark side of society. Therefore, the troubadour is more like the role of spokesperson. Okuzawa is the main representative of the troubadours in the “thaw period”. Vysotsky believes that his love for troubadour poetry is influenced by the troubadour Okuzawa, “When Okuzawa recited with the guitar When writing poetry, I was struck by the enormous impact it had on the audience, and I tried to do the same myself,” Vysotsky once said. So, he began to explore his own way of creating troubadours.
While working in the Taganka Theater, Vysotsky felt the theater’s enlightened, speculative, pioneering atmosphere and unique spiritual value orientation, which inspired Vysotsky’s strong creative passion. His first poem “Tattoo” came into being. The theater valued Vysotsky’s vivid, earnest and peculiar troubadours, and Vysotsky also needed the theater, because only here his troubadours are an integral part of the play. In the initial exploration, Vysotsky’s poetry creation mainly followed the tradition of underground satirical literature and urban ballads. He integrated the creation of troubadour poetry with drama and film performance, and introduced prose into poetry. The implied storyline is grotesque, and the absurdity in reality is properly displayed. Representative works include “Urban Ballad”, “My Fiancee Really Weeps for Me” and “Friends, Write to Me”. After a small test, Vysotsky’s poetry was out of control, and his poems covered a wide range of themes, such as war, sports, prisons and fairy tales. Major works include “Brother’s Tomb”, “At the Field Hospital”, “The Stars”, “Punishment Battalion”, “All to the Front”, “Brothers’ Cemetery”, “He Never Returned from the Battlefield”, “Song of Friends”, “Battle Song”, “The Sentimental Boxer” “, “Short Track Speed Skaters” and “Climbers” group songs.
Everything is as usual, why do I feel strange, the blue sky above my
head is still clear, the woods, the air, the spring water,
but he has not returned from the battlefield. I can’t figure out now either, who was right and who was right between us
in the argument that lasted all night , I feel that he is missing only now, but he has not returned from the battlefield. His silence was inappropriate, and the accompaniment singer couldn’t keep up with the time. When he spoke, the donkey’s head couldn’t match the horse’s mouth. He always refused to let me sleep, but he himself rose at dawn, but he didn’t return from the battlefield yesterday. I called him in a trance: ——Hey, leave half of the cigarette for me! — No answer, he did not return from the battlefield yesterday. ——Vysotsky’s “He Didn’t Return from the Battlefield” There are no tears, no exaggeration and sensationalism in the poem, only sad and sincere narration. The poet repeated the true and unchangeable reality of “he never returned from the battlefield” over and over again, and the cruelty of the war and the perseverance of the Russian man came to life on the paper. Listening to Vysotsky’s singing, the old heroes of the Great Patriotic War with gray hair and medals on their chests burst into tears.
Some poems also contain content that describes real life, criticizes current malpractices, and exposes the dark side of society. For example, “The Devil”, “The Ferocious Boar”, “Before Going Abroad”, “Song of the Envious Man”, “The Wolfhunter”, “Horse Race”, “Horizon”, “Wayward Horse”, “My Hamlet”, “Medical Records”, “Scheverman Bear” “Gossip in front of the TV” and so on. The creative style pursued by troubadours is to reflect the truth in an all-round way, and is committed to the balance between neither catering nor paranoia. Vysotsky is cruising in such a “neutral zone” and singing the voice of the people. Vysotsky used a lot of colloquial vocabulary and idiomatic expressions, and used rhetorical techniques such as personification, exaggeration, paradox, and absurdity to express the deep meaning hidden in poetry by creating dramatic conflicts and strengthening the comic effect of plots. Vysotsky became the most outstanding troubadour in the period of “stasis” that followed the “period of thaw”.
In 1968, some media began to publicly criticize Vysotsky’s poems, accusing him of “singing on behalf of alcoholics, disabled people, brazen hooligans who get away with it”. Vysotsky responded to the unfair criticism in the press with a poem “Wolf Hunting ”
. Not trembling! First use small flags to surround our freedom, and fight firmly and accurately. Wolves can’t abandon tradition! It seems that when we were children—we wolf cubs—the ignorant things sucked the mother wolf’s milk and also sucked in a sentence: Don’t cross the small flag! … —— Vysotsky “Wolf Hunting” Vysotsky observed the multi-faceted life with his unique perspective, and brought a legendary era to the Russian people. On February 13, 1978, the Ministry of Culture of the Soviet Union officially announced in Document No. 103 that Visosky was awarded the title of Super Pop Singer.
July 1980 was a long month that made Vysotsky feel physically and mentally exhausted, and it was also the last month of his life. Vysotsky showed his professionalism when performing at the Luberets Palace of Culture on July 3, despite the obvious feeling that he was not in good health. He was full of energy in front of the audience and tried to show his best on stage side. July 18 was Vysotsky’s final performance of Hamlet at the Taganka Theatre. A week later, the great troubadour, actor, and essayist died of acute myocardial infarction. At that time, when Moscow was hosting the Olympic Games, major newspapers and periodicals did not report the news of the poet’s death, and only a brief obituary such as “Actor Vysotsky died” was hung on the ticket window of the theater. After hearing the news, tens of thousands of people spontaneously came to the Taganka Theater to see Vysotsky off. Vysotsky’s wife Marina Vladi sighed: “I have seen the funerals of princes and kings, but I have never seen such (funerals)…”
Vysotsky performed at home and abroad all his life 1169 performances, and followed the Taganka Theater to perform in Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, France, Germany and other places. As of the 75th anniversary of Vysotsky’s birth in 2013, 12 streets in Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and other countries have been named after Vysotsky, and 8 Vysotsky memorial statues have been built in Russia.