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Reduced oxygen supply may have been the cause of Earth’s first mass extinction, study finds

  A new US study has traced the cause of the first known mass extinction of animals at the end of the Ediacaran period about 550 million years ago to a reduction in global oxygen supply. The research has been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
  The study, led by Scott Evans, a postdoctoral researcher in Virginia Tech’s Department of Earth Sciences, shows that about 80 percent of animals became mass extinctions during that time period, with animals that depend on large amounts of oxygen appearing to be particularly hard hit hit. This suggests that the extinction event was environmentally controlled, as are all other mass extinction events in the geological record.
  Environmental changes, such as global warming and deoxygenation events, can lead to mass extinctions of animals and severe disruption and reorganization of ecosystems, as has been repeatedly demonstrated in studies of Earth’s history, the researchers said. Thus, this study provides insight into the long-term impact of current environmental changes on the biosphere. As for the cause of the global oxygen decline, the researchers believe that it may be any combination of volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, asteroid impacts, etc.
“Rafting” in European countries is included in the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

  Recently, the “raft rafting” project jointly declared by Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Latvia, Poland and other countries was successfully selected into the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  According to reports, rafting originated in the Middle Ages, when rafts were used to transport timber, goods and people. In the past, rafters often lived and worked together on a raft for weeks, creating a community of shared knowledge, techniques and values ​​for crafting and sailing rafts. From the Middle Ages to the second half of the 20th century, rafting experienced its heyday in Europe, which to some extent reflects the economic development history of the European continent. In Germany, the last drifting for commercial use was in the 1980s, but the tradition continues to this day.
  Today, rafting is open to practitioners of different ages, genders, social and cultural backgrounds. People regularly carry out lively and interesting experience sharing, and continue to enrich this cross-border cultural heritage through oral communication, field observation, and personal participation. connotation and value.
Australia opposes separate listing of Great Barrier Reef on World Heritage in Danger list

  On November 29, 2022, according to British Sky News, Australian Environment Minister Tania Plibesek stated that the Australian government opposed UNESCO’s proposal to list the Great Barrier Reef separately on the World Heritage in Danger List the day before. .
  According to reports, on November 28, UNESCO said that frequent bleaching events are threatening the Great Barrier Reef, which has occurred four times in the past seven years. Bleaching occurs when corals expel colored algae that live in their tissues, turning white when water temperatures get too high. UNESCO scientists conducted a ten-day expedition to the Great Barrier Reef in March 2022 and warned: “Without significant, rapid and sustained climate action, the world’s largest coral reef is at risk. However ,
  Australia has been lobbying to remove the Great Barrier Reef from the endangered list due to fears it would affect the country’s economy. It is reported that the Great Barrier Reef contributes 6.4 billion Australian dollars to the country’s economy every year. Before the outbreak of the new crown epidemic, it was visited by about 2 million tourists every year and provided employment opportunities for 64,000 people.
British MPs fail half of national primary school exams

  Recently, according to the British “Times” report, under the initiative of the British education organization “More Than A Score”, which called for education reform, a group of British MPs took part in the primary school graduation exam, and half of them failed. .
  According to the report, the SATS test is the most important test in the primary school stage in the UK, and its grades directly affect admission to higher education. Some British MPs recently took the SATS test for sixth graders when they visited a primary school in south London. These politicians included Robin Walker, the former Minister of State for Schools in the British Ministry of Education and the current chairman of the Education Committee.
  Their test results showed that only 44 per cent achieved the mark in primary maths and 50 per cent in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary, compared with an average of 71 per cent for UK primary school pupils in 2022. and 72%. The group said they hoped the experiment would allow politicians to experience the stress of exams and make them realize that “exams are only used to judge schools and do not help children learn”. Among the politicians who participated in the test, Robin Walker scored the highest. He told the media that the test for British students aged 10 to 11 really needs to be reformed. cognitive enthusiasm.
World’s largest active volcano erupts for first time in nearly 40 years

  On November 28, 2022, according to Agence France-Presse, the world’s largest active volcano, the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, USA, erupted for the first time in nearly 40 years.
  According to reports, the eruption began at 23:30 local time on November 27th. Molten magma appeared on the upper part of the volcano and caused dense smoke over Hawaii Island, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It can be seen in places with a radius of more than 70 kilometers. These smokes. The U.S. Geological Survey said there was currently no risk to residents below the eruption area, but the eruption of the volcano could fluctuate. Meanwhile, the Geological Survey said “volcanic gases and volcanic hairs” – the fiberglass on volcanoes, filaments formed when lava blows in high winds – are as sharp as razor-sharp. The fibers of razor blades are dangerous to the skin and eyes. The National Weather Service also warned that ash and debris may also accumulate around the volcano, which could cause breathing difficulties for residents or interfere with the operation of engines and electrical systems.
  According to reports, Mauna Loa volcano covers half of the land of Hawaii Island, an area larger than that of the other islands in this archipelago combined. The volcano is 4169 meters high and is one of the six active volcanoes on the Hawaiian Islands.
Oxford Dictionaries announces 2022 Oxford Word of the Year ‘Goblin Mode’

  On December 5, 2022, Oxford Dictionary announced the 2022 word of the year: “Goblin Mode” (Goblin Mode). According to reports, Goblin is usually translated as “goblin”, which refers to a small, trouble-loving, difficult-to-handle elf monster in European folklore.
  According to the definition of Oxford Dictionary, “Goblin Mode” refers to a state of self-indulgence, laziness, slovenliness or greed without regret. People in European and American countries usually use this term to describe a state of life like a goblin. For example, the National Public Radio of the United States described the state of life as: regardless of the time of day, watching many episodes of TV series at once, eating snacks in bed, making food scum on the sheets, and wearing the same clothes for several days while working at home pajamas.
  It is understood that Oxford Vocabulary of the Year selects a vocabulary that can generally reflect the emotions or concerns of people in Europe and the United States in the past 12 months. This year’s winning word is selected by public online voting for the first time. Oxford Languages ​​pointed out that as the haze of the new crown epidemic dissipated and people gradually stepped out of the house, the term “Goblin Mode” seemed to capture the general sentiment of people who refused to return to “normal life”, or expressed concern about social media. Rebellion against rising beauty standards and unsustainable lifestyles.

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