Life,  Health

Stroke risk assessment: Keeping it under control

  Cerebral apoplexy, also known as apoplexy, occurs suddenly without warning, and the condition is serious, often accompanied by limb movement disorders. Even if the most advanced and perfect treatment methods are applied, more than 70% of stroke patients cannot take care of themselves completely, which adds a lot of burden to the society and family. Due to the great harm of stroke, I believe that everyone is eager to know how likely they are to have a stroke. This is stroke risk assessment. After the assessment, you can clearly know which factors you currently have that are likely to cause stroke, which can be improved and prevented; which level of stroke risk you are in, and how to effectively prevent it, so that all these are under control and targeted , so as to effectively reduce the incidence of cerebrovascular disease.
What are the characteristics of stroke

  Stroke is an acute cerebrovascular disease, divided into two types: hemorrhagic and ischemic. The latter (known as cerebral thrombosis) accounts for 85% of all strokes. Stroke has an acute onset, rapid disease progression, and serious consequences. Even with timely treatment, some stroke survivors may still suffer from physical disabilities, language barriers, dysphagia, cognitive impairment, mental depression, and loss of social relationships, causing serious harm to families and society. huge burden.
How to Recognize a Stroke

  In 2016, the “Stroke 120” three-step recognition method was published in “The Lancet Neurology”, which included: “l” look at l face, asymmetrical, crooked mouth; “2” look at 2 arms, raise them in parallel , unilateral weakness; “0” (listening) listening to language, slurred speech, difficulty expressing. If you have any of the above sudden symptoms, you should immediately suspect a stroke, call 120 for help immediately, and send to the nearest medical institution capable of treating stroke for standardized treatment.
  It is extremely important to detect the early symptoms of stroke in time. The sooner it is found and treated, the better the effect. The patient is sent to a stroke center with treatment capabilities within 4.5 hours of onset, and receives standardized vascular opening treatment. Most of the symptoms can be significantly improved, and the good quality of life will also be saved.
Risk assessment of first-onset stroke

  The simple and easy “8+2” risk score for stroke recommended by the Stroke Prevention and Control Engineering Committee of the National Health Commission consists of 8 major risk factors plus stroke history, and is suitable for stroke risk factor screening and Intervention work. The 8 major risk factors are: high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, atrial fibrillation, overweight or obesity, lack of exercise, and family history of stroke. 2 stroke medical history means: stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
  The “8+2” stroke risk score divides adults over 40 years old into low-risk, medium-risk, and high-risk groups for stroke.
  High risk: have 3 or more risk factors; or have had a stroke; or have had a transient ischemic attack (TIA).
  Moderate risk: with less than 3 risk factors and one of the chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation).
  Low risk: with less than 3 risk factors and no chronic diseases.

Risk assessment of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  TIA is a transient or transient, focal neurological (brain, retina, or spinal cord) disorder caused by vascular causes, mainly manifested as transient amaurosis, foggy vision, black spots in the field of vision, and shaking shadows. Weakness or numbness of the side or limbs, aphasia, cognitive changes, or sudden onset of vertigo or dizziness. It usually lasts for 10 to 15 minutes, usually within 1 hour, and the longest does not exceed one day, and no signs of neurological deficit remain after recovery.
  TIA is a serious “stroke warning” event requiring urgent intervention. The stroke risk of TIA patients within 7 days is 4%-10%, and the 90-day stroke risk is 11%. Studies have shown that urgent evaluation and treatment of TIA can reduce the risk of stroke by 80%. The currently commonly used TIA early stroke risk stratification tool is the ABCD scoring system. Among them, the ABCD2 score can well predict the short-term stroke risk of TIA, and is the most widely used, as shown in the table below.

What to do if you are rated as being at medium or high risk of stroke

  The risk assessment of initial stroke and the risk assessment of stroke after transient ischemic attack (TIA) mentioned above are very important for stroke risk prediction and subsequent treatment. If it is assessed as medium-high risk, it is best to go to the hospital to consult a doctor for further examinations, mainly including homocysteine ​​testing, carotid artery ultrasound, and cerebrovascular ultrasound examination. If there is a problem with carotid artery ultrasound and cerebrovascular ultrasound, another MRI angiography can be done. At the same time, actively carry out lifestyle intervention under the guidance of doctors, and start comprehensive intervention measures such as antithrombotic, plaque stabilization and blood pressure management as soon as possible to minimize the risk of stroke.
What are the specific measures to prevent stroke

  The prevention of stroke should focus on the “four cornerstones of health” of reasonable diet, moderate exercise, smoking and alcohol cessation, and psychological balance. Develop a healthy lifestyle, conduct regular screening for stroke risk factors, and achieve early detection, early prevention, early diagnosis, and early treatment.
  Pay attention to the following points in daily life: light diet; moderately strengthen physical exercise; overcome bad habits, such as quitting smoking and drinking, avoiding sedentary, etc.; prevent overwork; pay attention to climate change; Early treatment.
  Patients with related diseases should pay attention to the following points: hypertensive patients should pay attention to blood pressure control and insist on taking antihypertensive drugs; ;Diabetes patients and high-risk groups should actively control blood sugar; people with atrial fibrillation or other heart diseases should control risk factors related to heart disease; improve health awareness focusing on prevention, actively participate in and cooperate with local medical and health institutions to carry out stroke high-risk groups Screening, intervention and other activities. At the same time, pay attention to the stroke first aid map of the city where you live and the stroke center in your living area.

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