Health

Awareness of cervical lesions

  The uterus is a female-specific reproductive organ, which is divided into two parts, the uterus and the cervix, in terms of physiological structure. The cervix, which belongs to the lower half of the uterus, communicates with the outside world through the vagina, and its lesions mainly include cervical inflammation, cervical polyps, cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical cancer. Let’s take a look at the etiology and clinical manifestations of these cervical lesions.
  The cause of cervicitis
  Cervicitis is a relatively common gynecological disease, especially in women of pregnancy age, divided into two types: acute and chronic. Among them, if acute cervicitis is not diagnosed and treated in time or the pathogen persists, it will become chronic.
  (1) Pathogen infection. The most important ones are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which can also be secondary to trichomonas and candida vaginitis. (2) Mechanical stimulation or injury. Such as childbirth, miscarriage, surgery, etc. cause cervical injury. (3) Chemical stimulation. If you use a high-concentration acidic or alkaline solution to clean the vagina, placing a highly corrosive drug tablet suppository can also cause inflammation.
  In addition, the use of unclean sanitary napkins, toilets, toilet paper and even undried underwear can be the source of infection of cervicitis. If a woman’s immunity decreases due to various reasons within a certain period of time, it will also bring opportunities for cervicitis.
  The etiology of cervical polyps
  Cervical polyps are localized neoplasms caused by cervical tissue hyperplasia. The etiology is not particularly clear, and some patients may be related to inflammatory stimuli. Long-term stimulation of chronic inflammation will promote the excessive proliferation of cervical mucosa, which gradually protrudes from the base to the external os of the cervix, forming cervical polyps. In addition, it may also be related to the disorder of estrogen and progesterone in the body. For example, in the case of excessive fluctuation of estrogen in a short period of time such as childbirth and abortion, it is easy to stimulate excessive proliferation of mucosa.
  Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and the etiology of cervical cancer
  Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions can be simply understood as cervical precancer, which can be divided into low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), primary adenocarcinoma (AIS).
  (1) Infection with HPV virus (human papillomavirus). According to research surveys, almost 90% of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions are caused by HPV virus. HPV includes high-risk HPV, suspected high-risk HPV, and low-risk HPV. Among them, high-risk HPV types include 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, etc., suspected high-risk HPV types include 26, 53, 66, 67, etc., and low-risk types include 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, etc. At present, persistent infection of high-risk HPV has been confirmed to be the main pathogenic factor of cervical cancer.
  (2) Sexual behavior. The bodies of girls who are still in puberty are not yet fully developed, and their immune systems are not fully mature, unable to resist the invasion of some viruses. Therefore, the probability of getting sick among girls who start having sex under the age of 16 is significantly higher. In addition, more frequent sex life and too many sexual partners will also significantly increase the possibility of disease.
  (3) Bad living habits. For example, smoking can significantly increase the probability of women being infected with HPV.
  In addition, premature delivery may also cause cervical lesions. Studies have shown that long-term oral contraceptives and women who suffer from other gynecological diseases can promote the occurrence of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions to a certain extent.
  Symptoms of cervical lesions Clinical manifestations of
  cervicitis
  Most patients are asymptomatic. Symptomatic acute cervicitis manifests as increased vaginal discharge, which is mucopurulent, bleeding during menstruation, bleeding after sexual intercourse, etc. Symptomatic chronic cervicitis also manifests as increased vaginal discharge, pale yellow or purulent, with occasional discharge Things that stimulate the vulva cause genital itching, etc.
  Clinical manifestations of cervical polyps
  Most patients have no obvious clinical symptoms, and are mostly found during routine gynecological physical examinations. Occasionally, it is manifested as abnormal leucorrhea, blood streaks in leucorrhea, or bleeding after sexual intercourse.
  Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer

  (1) Vaginal bleeding: In the early stage, it is mostly contact bleeding, which often occurs after sexual life or gynecological examination. If it is not taken seriously, it will become irregular vaginal bleeding.
  (2) Vaginal discharge: There may be increased vaginal discharge, which is white or bloody, thin as water, and has a foul smell.
  (3) Late symptoms: If you continue to ignore your body’s early warning and develop into cervical cancer, it may further accumulate in adjacent tissues or nerves, causing symptoms such as frequent urination, urgency, constipation, and lower extremity pain.
  What are the dangers of cervical lesions
  ? Cervicitis can lead to ascending infection and lead to endometritis, and parauterine ligaments and lymphatic vessels can also be infected. The uterus is located in the center of the pelvis of the female body. These lesions can also lead to chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, the bladder and urinary system will also be implicated, and even lead to infertility. Cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion is the early stage of cervical cancer. If it is not paid attention to and treated in time, it will lead to cervical cancer.
  There are many patients who know that they already have some symptoms of cervical lesions, but due to some subjective and objective factors, they are unwilling or unable to seek medical treatment in time. It makes the lesion more serious. For example, although cervical polyps are benign, they may become malignant if they are not treated in time.
  How to prevent cervical lesions Regular gynecological examinations are carried out
  every year . The doctor first judges the shape, texture, erosion and polyps of the cervix, and then judges whether the cervix is ​​affected by HPV with the aid of HPV, TCT (cytological examination of cervical smear) and other auxiliary examinations. Infection and presence of heterosexual epithelial cells in the cervical epithelium. If TCT prompts the presence of atypical cells such as heterosexual epithelial cells, colposcopy can be used to biopsy the suspected lesions of the cervix to improve the accuracy of the examination.
  Women who have sex have a higher risk of cervical cancer than women who do not have sex. When a woman finds abnormal leucorrhea, painful urination, or vaginal itching, she must be checked and treated in time. Only by early detection and early treatment can the harm of cervical lesions be minimized.
  In addition, the first HPV vaccine was launched in 2006, 17 years ago, and it has been proven to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous lesions. At present, the suitable age for domestic bivalent vaccine vaccination is 9-45 years old, the four-valent vaccine is 20-45 years old, and the MSD nine-valent vaccine is 9-45 years old, and the earlier the vaccination, the better the preventive effect.
  Reasonable work and rest time, healthy eating habits and exercise to improve immunity are also essential links in the treatment of HPV infection. Also, keep a positive attitude. Compared with men, women are more emotional and sensitive, and negative emotions such as anger, depression, and worry can cause endocrine disorders, and disorders of estrogen and progesterone are likely to lead to the occurrence of uterine fibroids, endometrial polyps, and cervical polyps.
  What are the methods of treating cervical diseases?
  If cervical lesions have been confirmed by examination, there is no need to panic. There are corresponding treatment methods for different cervical diseases. To treat cervicitis, you must first pass the leucorrhea examination to confirm what type of inflammation is. The therapeutic drugs used for bacterial infection, trichomonas infection and mycoplasma vaginitis are different. For cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, drug therapy, physical therapy, surgical therapy, and topical therapy can be used according to the actual situation of the patient. Among them, physical therapy is currently a widely used treatment method, which is suitable for patients with relatively large lesion area or deep inflammatory infiltration. Commonly used are ironing, phototherapy and cryotherapy.
  In short, women should maintain regular work and rest, eat a reasonable diet, have regular gynecological examinations, exercise moderately, and keep clean to maintain the health of the uterus.

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