The History of Magic: From Ancient Rituals to Modern Fantasy

  From shadow magic in “The Lord of the Rings” to “Expelling Arms” in “Harry Potter”, from necromancy in “Dungeons and Dragons” to “Destruction” in various fantasy games , as an important part of western fantasy literature, magic has become well known with the development of globalization. Although the magic mentioned so far comes from the “Dungeons and Dragons” system, the root cause is that magic is older and more complex than many people imagine.
  In 2011, a magic school named Gray in California, USA, was officially certified by academic institutions and became the only registered magic school in the world. As long as you complete your studies, you will also have a formal academic certificate. In addition to teaching courses such as alchemy, animal taming, wand making, and spells, this magic school also teaches “magic mathematics”, quantum theory, cosmology, herbalism, and metaphysics. very real.
  Looking for the origin of magic
  In fact , most of the concepts of magic discussed by modern people come from several theories. The first one comes from the “Intellectual Theory” developed by Taylor in “Primitive Culture” in 1871, which was later enriched by the British social anthropologist Fraser. They believe that the origin of magic can be traced back to human beings’ perceptual cognition and rational thinking of nature. Magic, like religion and science, can be understood through rational thinking, but magic is based on the misunderstanding of imagination, while religion and science In fact, it is a higher level of magic; the second comes from the “functional theory” of French anthropologists Marcel Moss and Emile Durkheim, who believe that magic is a non-socialized ritual need; while the French Sociologist Lucien Levy-Brühl put forward a theory of participation by observing the culture and language of Aboriginal tribes in Australia. He believed that magic is the attitude of people towards the world in certain cultural backgrounds, but it is different from modern science. objective attitude. Instead, they think that they interact with the natural world and participate in each other, instead of seeing nature as an objective object. The world is produced by the interaction between human beings and the natural world, so these cultures believe that the power that belongs to nature also belongs to human beings , and humans can master these forces through learning. Although after the birth of modern science, theories about magic were considered by modern scientists and philosophers to be mystifying and contrary to reason, even theologians who were closely associated with magic theory drew a line with magic after the Reformation.
  Archeology has found that as early as 80,000 years ago, Neanderthals in the Paleolithic Age already had primitive witchcraft beliefs, which shows that at the beginning of the birth of human beings, they had awe and fear for various phenomena in nature. And the desire to be in control. In the conception of the ancient Greeks and Romans, magic originated in Persia. The English word “magic” for magic was transformed from the ancient Persian “magus” into Greek and then into Latin before finally having a modern English term.
  In ancient Greek philosophy, magic was understood as a culture or technology that could be taught, just like wine making and farming. The witch Medea killed her husband Jason’s new love with poison, and poison, or potion, was also considered part of magic. In the ancient Roman era, developed commerce promoted the prosperity of culture and philosophy, and made language the focus of people’s attention. They even deified language and believed that language has mysterious power. This statement is still used in many magical works until today. exist.
  So language magic, that is, “incantation” appeared. In the famous “Cornelia Law Prohibiting Murder and Poisoning” in ancient Rome, in addition to stipulating the punishment for killing and poisoning, it will also use spells to attack others. list them.
  In the Middle Ages, under the influence of religion, magic was split into “white magic” that relied on divine power and “black magic” that served the devil, and “magicians” who used magic were also divided into many detailed categories, such as some Priests can use white magic to heal or exorcise evil spirits, while some black magic is used to resurrect the dead to become their own puppets, and some people even believe that black magic can summon demons to harm the world. At that time, “witches” were often the embodiment of evil—the users of black magic, which was also the cause of the persecution of “witches” in the “witch hunting era”. In the Renaissance era, with the emergence of natural science, the concept of magic not only did not disappear, but started to combine with natural science as it advanced with the times. During that period, the concept of “natural magic” and even “mathematical magic” was born, and alchemy and astrology became more prosperous. Nowadays, with the development of science, magic is gradually regarded as a vassal of religion, or a part of “occultism”.
  Those famous great magicians
  The story of the first part of “Harry Potter” revolves around the “Sorcerer’s Stone” created by Nicole Flamel, and Nick Flamel does have a person in history. He was born in France in 1330. After growing up, he made a living by selling books and copying articles for others in Paris. Lemay was well-educated, proficient in Latin and Greek, and good at calligraphy and drawing. At that time, nobles often spent money Ask him to copy precious texts
  Books . Later, he dreamed that an angel told him that he would get a magical book, and if he could study it thoroughly, he could gain extraordinary power. It wasn’t long before he did discover a mysterious document called The Jewish Book of Abraham. Flamel recorded in the manuscript: “This is an ancient and huge book. It is not made of paper or sheepskin like other books, but is made of fine and smooth bark. The cover is tightly wrapped with brass. , engraved with words or magical symbols…” After years of research, LeMay claimed to have insight into the secrets of alchemy and successfully created the Philosopher’s Stone, which is also known as the “Philosopher’s Stone” or “Sage’s Stone”. stone”. According to Lemay’s records, the Philosopher’s Stone is red in color and can convert mercury into gold. In addition, the Philosopher’s Stone can make people live forever, so Lemay is also regarded as the ancestor of European alchemy. Many manuscripts about alchemy left by him are regarded as treasures, such as the “Phoenix Picture” drawn by him, known as “the treasure of treasures”, and the image of Phoenix Phoenix in “Harry Potter” Originated from this.
  It is said that LeMay became very rich after successfully creating the Philosopher’s Stone. He used almost all the wealth from alchemy on charity, built 14 hospitals in Paris, and built churches. Today’s Paris still has more The street is named after LeMay and his wife Perenelle. In 1417, LeMay, who was supposed to be “immortal”, died at the age of 87. However, the story after his death was even more exciting.
  Many strange symbols were found in LeMay’s tomb. Alchemists from all over the world came to his tomb to find the secret of the Philosopher’s Stone. Later, tomb robbers dug up the tomb of the LeMay couple. It is said that the coffin in the tomb was empty. Later, someone claimed to have sorted out LeMay’s manuscripts, and published a book entitled “Explanation of the Incomprehensible Symbols Carved by Nico LeMay on the Vault Wall of the Fourth Chamber of the Holy Child Cemetery in Paris”, which was also translated into In English, the translator is the famous Newton. Later, every once in a while, someone claimed to have seen LeMay, and most of the places they found were concentrated around the Paris Opera House. According to this, it is believed that LeMay, who loves opera, has always maintained his hobby.
  Also mentioned in “Harry Potter” is Heinrich Tesheim, a 16th-century alchemist, astrologer and occultist, whose research on the idea of ​​”occult philosophy” Basic magic was popular at that time, and his book “The Trilogy of Hidden Philosophy” is also a famous book on magic research.
  Nostradamus was also a magician, good at astrology, medicine and prophecy. It is said that in the 16th century, a plague broke out in southern France, and he gained a high reputation in the local area with his superb medical skills and magic, but later, his wife and two children were killed by another plague. It is said that Nostradamus successfully predicted the floods and disasters in southern France, and people at that time believed in his predictive ability. In 1555, Nostradamus compiled his prophecies into a book. This collection of prophecies called “The Centuries” is full of obscure sentences, but this does not prevent it from becoming a world-famous work until today. Still being reprinted. The prophecy of the end of the world in 1999 came from this book, so it seems that his prediction is not so accurate.
  Throughout history, there are “magicians” in every era, some appear in legends, some are real, and some appear in literary works.

error: Content is protected !!