Health

What are the Factors that Affect Blood Pressure?

  Blood pressure (BP) is the lateral pressure that blood acts on the vessel wall per unit area when blood flows in the blood vessel. According to different parts, it is usually divided into arterial blood pressure, venous blood pressure and capillary blood pressure. In daily life, arterial blood pressure in the systemic circulation is usually measured. There are many factors that affect blood pressure, such as blood vessel elasticity, blood volume, myocardial contractility, intravascular resistance, and blood output of the heart. Normal adult blood pressure is 90-139 mmHg/60-89 mmHg. If the blood pressure is too high, arteriosclerosis, myocardial structure and function changes may occur, which is the main cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; while the blood pressure is too low, it will cause dizziness, fatigue and other symptoms. Therefore, usually control blood pressure within the normal range. Under normal circumstances, factors affecting blood pressure include stroke volume, peripheral resistance, heart rate, elasticity of arterial and aortic wall, circulating blood volume and vascular volume, etc.
  Physiological factors
  Mood swings
  There is a direct relationship between mood and changes in blood pressure. When people have emotional changes, it directly induces an increase in the excitability of the sympathetic nerves, causing increased vasoconstriction, increased heart rate, and directly leads to an increase in blood pressure. Therefore, for people who are engaged in mental work or work under tension or stress, blood vessels are often in a state of contraction, and they are high-risk groups for high blood pressure.
  Irregular work and rest Lack of
  sleep or staying up late can lead to neurological disorders, endocrine disorders, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, lack of sleep can disturb the internal environment of the human body, and can also cause mental stress and anxiety. Good sleep can keep hormones in the body at a stable level, which is conducive to the regulation and maintenance of blood pressure at normal levels. Therefore, you should develop good living habits, don’t stay up late, and work and rest regularly.
  Drinking
  Alcohol can cause sympathetic nerve excitement, increase heart rate, and increase blood pressure. Of course, this is related to the individual’s physique. Some people are more sensitive to alcohol, so it is generally not recommended for hypertensive patients to drink alcohol.
  obesity
  Obese patients generally have a large blood flow, and obese people are often accompanied by hyperlipidemia, which can increase the hardening state of peripheral arteries, and even plaques, which will reduce the elasticity of blood vessels and lead to increased blood pressure. Moreover, the heart load of obese patients increases, and the myocardium needs to contract hard, which will also cause blood pressure to rise. Therefore, obesity is a clear risk factor for hypertension.
  Salt
  The World Health Organization stipulates that the daily salt intake per person should not exceed 6g, and the latest standard is that the daily salt intake per person should not exceed 5g. Once the daily intake of too much salt will increase the sodium ion content in the body, aggravate water and sodium retention, activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and lead to high blood pressure, and this process is irreversible. High blood pressure caused by long-term intake of too much salt is called salt-sensitive hypertension.
  Genetics
  Hypertension is generally hereditary, especially for type 1 diabetes. Generally, in a family, if parents have high blood pressure, the probability of their children suffering from high blood pressure is significantly higher than others. Of course, high blood pressure is the result of a combination of many factors, of which genetic factors are only one part.
  Other diseases
  Kidney
  disease The kidney is an important management organ of the human body environment or endocrine. When the kidney or kidney blood vessels become diseased, the secretion of angiotensin will increase sharply, leading to spasm of small arteries throughout the body and increased resistance of small arteries, thus causing high blood pressure. blood pressure.
  Arterial stenosis
  is mainly seen in the leaf stenosis of the bilateral renal arteries and some coarctation of the aorta. Most coarctation of the aorta is congenital, and a few are caused by Takayasu arteritis. The clinical manifestation is that the blood pressure of the upper arm increases, while the blood pressure of the lower extremity is not high or decreases, which is just the opposite of normal blood pressure.
  Coronary heart
  disease The instability of blood pressure caused by coronary heart disease is mainly seen in a sudden drop in blood pressure, and rarely causes a sudden increase in blood pressure. Because patients with coronary heart disease have cardiac insufficiency or even heart failure, the amount of blood pumped by the heart is reduced, resulting in a significant drop in blood pressure. Blood pressure may return to normal after cardiac function improves.
  heart failure
  In patients with heart failure, the ability of the myocardium to relax and contract is significantly reduced, and the pumping volume of the heart is significantly reduced. In the early stages of heart failure, the heart usually has some metabolic function and blood pressure may remain normal. But in the late stage of heart failure, the heart function enters the decompensation stage, and the blood volume will be insufficient, resulting in a significant drop in blood pressure.
  Pheochromocytoma
  Pheochromocytoma can secrete a large amount of catecholamines, causing strong contraction of blood vessels, tissue hypoxia, increased microvascular permeability, and sharp decrease in blood volume. A large amount of catecholamines can lead to severe arrhythmia or heart failure, a significant decrease in cardiac output, and sudden hemorrhage and necrosis of cancerous tissue, which stops the release of catecholamines. Since the tumor tissue mainly secretes adrenaline, the excitatory adrenergic β receptors can dilate blood vessels. Patients often have symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and profuse sweating, which can cause hypotension or shock.
  Cervical spondylosis
  Vertebral artery type is a type of cervical spondylosis that has not been recognized by the medical community, that is, when the cervical spine rotates, it compresses the vertebral artery, resulting in reduced blood supply, causing dizziness and increased blood pressure in patients. In addition, the discomfort caused by cervical spondylosis will affect the patient’s mood and rest, and may also cause blood pressure to rise.
  Irregular
  medications are caused by incorrect use of antihypertensive drugs, especially short-acting antihypertensive drugs. Different types of antihypertensive drugs have different scopes of application. If the patient does not choose the appropriate antihypertensive drug according to the actual situation, or does not pay attention to blood pressure measurement during the medication, or does not take the medicine as prescribed by the doctor, it will easily lead to unstable blood pressure control. Patients with high blood pressure must insist on taking medicine at the same time every day for a long time. If they take it intermittently, not only will the effect not be achieved, but the fluctuation of blood pressure will also cause adverse effects on blood vessels and organs.
  Decreased blood vessel elasticity in the elderly
  When the elasticity of the aorta in the human body decreases, it will not expand normally during the ventricular ejection period, which may lead to an increase in systolic blood pressure. As the recoil of the ventricles gradually decreases, the diastolic pressure may also gradually increase. The arteriolar sclerosis will lead to a gradual increase in peripheral resistance, which will eventually increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
  menopausal syndrome
  Estrogen levels fluctuate or decrease in women before and after menopause, leading to a series of autonomic dysfunction, anxiety, anger, dryness, depression and other negative emotions, which are easy to excite the sympathetic nerves and increase blood pressure. Studies have shown that the incidence of high blood pressure in patients with anxiety, excitement, and agitation is 1.5 times that of normal people.
  To sum up, there are many reasons for high and low blood pressure, but most of them are controllable. In order to clarify the specific reasons, it is recommended to consider further examinations in the Department of Cardiovascular Medicine of qualified hospitals, including routine monitoring of 24-hour dynamics. Blood pressure, as well as electrocardiogram, cardiac color Doppler ultrasound, etc., to check whether there are problems with the heart or blood vessels. It is necessary to develop good living habits, pay attention to low-salt diet, quit smoking and drinking, and exercise reasonably, which can generally ensure that blood pressure is in a relatively stable state. Conduct regular physical examinations to avoid changes in blood pressure caused by some diseases; keep a blood pressure measuring instrument at home for regular self-monitoring.

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