Life,  Tech

The History of Soda: From Dutch Water to Global Popularity

  Soda water was called Dutch water when it first entered China. It has appeared on the streets of Shanghai since at least 1887. It is light green in color and sold in clay pots with lids. During the period of the Republic of China, the most popular place for young people was the ice drinking room. Newspapers used photos of drinking soda to reflect people’s leisure life, saying that “rich people sit around in teahouses all day long, soda, Coca-Cola, and fresh orange juice are wonderful products in Queshu.” In the 1920s and 1930s, the price of foreign brands of soda water was about one yuan, while domestic brands could only be sold for seven or eight cents, while soda drinks at roadside stalls might only cost three or four cents. Chinese people, who are very skilled in diet, are not only happy to buy finished soft drinks, but also start to think about how to make them at home.
  Sparkling water has long been a leader in the summer beverage market. The moment we open the bottle cap and hear the bubbling sound, we seem to have the strength to resist the scorching heat. In my childhood memories, the summer three-piece suit of “soda, watermelon, and summer mat” seems to be more refreshing than air conditioning. In fact, the heat-relieving effect of soda is not an illusion. After people drink carbonated beverages, due to the increase in temperature and the decrease in pressure, the carbonic acid will be decomposed into carbon dioxide and water. Because this reaction is an endothermic reaction, when carbon dioxide is discharged from the body, it will take away some heat, so it can play a role in cooling and cooling. However, the original intention of people trying to inject carbon dioxide into water hundreds of years ago was not to drink happily, but to develop medicines. The invention of carbonated drinks was really an accidental act.

Artificial sparkling water was born with difficulty

  In Europe, where there are many active volcanoes, many springs naturally carry gas. In Western history, natural mineral water containing gas has always been regarded as a treasure, and people believe that it has magical powers and can cure all diseases. In the 1660s, someone recorded the origin of the “fairy water” in Bath, England. A large number of hot spring baths have been set up around these mineral springs, which have become a good place for rich people to relax and maintain health care. At first, the merchants also wanted to transport these natural gas bubble water to the market to sell, and make a lot of money. Unexpectedly, when the market opened the lid, the original bubbles in the water had already disappeared, leaving only the bottom of the tank. A layer of sediment.
  In addition to being used for bathing, sparkling mineral water was gradually put on the dining table, because everyone found that the water with bubbles seemed to be particularly refreshing and thirst-quenching. They guessed that sparkling water must be beneficial to human health.
  Since you can’t be a porter of nature, it is better to find a way to imitate nature. How to make water with bubbles? Many people have conducted research on this issue in history. It is generally believed that the British Bramingo was the first person to add gas to water to make “soda”. He used the gas collection tank for the study of combustible gases (such as methane) in mines and air after oxygen depletion, in order to analyze the gas composition in coal mines. This “soda” is of course not drinkable.
  In the 1770s, English chemist Joseph Priestley became interested in the gases on beer fermenters. He placed a bowl of water on top of a beer fermenter to study how “fixed air” interacted with water. Unexpectedly, he found that the water in the bowl had a pleasant sour taste. This, Priestley thought, must be due to the dissolution of “fixed air,” which later turned out to be carbon dioxide, in water.

In 1851, the soda water machine manufactured by Heywood Taylor Group was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of Industry in Great Britain. The machines at that time could already store gas stably in a large-scale production mode, realizing the mass and efficient production of soda water.

  Priestley was the first to experimentally prove that air is not a gas, but is composed of different components, so he is called the “father of gas chemistry”. In 1772, Priestley perfected and improved the production process of artificial sparkling water, invented the method of using the chemical reaction of sulfuric acid and chalk to produce carbon dioxide, and published a paper explaining how to artificially produce carbonated water. He also made a device for this purpose and wrote down its construction and use in a booklet. Priestley’s device uses pig bladders to capture the carbon dioxide produced, and squeezes the bladders to force the carbon dioxide into a bottle that’s upside down on a tray filled with water. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to produce a fizzy “drink,” and Priestley is credited as the inventor of carbonated beverages. But because pig bladders were used in the experiment, the drink was also dubbed a “urine-flavored drink” by his competitors.
  In any event, Priestley was awarded the Copley Medal by the Royal Society for his work. Founded in 1731, the Copley Award is one of the oldest scientific awards in the world, used to reward outstanding research achievements in the field of science and technology. Priestley believed that carbonated water could be used to cure scurvy, which of course was a false conclusion, but this experiment inadvertently invented the summer drink that became popular all over the world.
  Priestley did not take this scientific achievement as his own, and many manufacturers use it to make artificially sparkling mineral water. In 1783, Johann Jacob Schwepp, a Swiss born in Germany, based on the existing technology, “replicated” the taste of carbonated water by mixing sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid in water, but the resulting The taste of the drink is not ideal. Schwepp focused on improving the production process of carbonated water, solving this problem by adding fruit juice and artificial flavors. At the same time, he also improved the process of adding tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate. This was actually the precursor to the modern soda.

  Schwepp also invented the world’s first commercial carbonic acid manufacturing technology, produced an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate, and “soda water” appeared for the first time in human history. Since then, Schwepp founded the Schwepp Company named after himself, which specializes in the production and sales of soda water. In 1792, he moved to London, where Schwepp’s fizzy drink was approved by top British doctors and sold as a remedy for a variety of ailments. When the company entered the Chinese market, its Chinese name was Yiquan.
  It wasn’t until 1799, though, that a Dublin company called Thwaites’ Soda first used the term soda in commerce. In 1810, two American inventors applied for the first patent for the mass production of soda water.

  In 1832, the British invented a new type of soda water machine, making mass production of bottled soda water a reality. In the past, the machines used yeast to ferment or add compounds in water to generate gas. Lime reaction produces a large amount of gas in a short period of time and needs to be stored outside water. Once the air pressure is too high, there is a danger of explosion. However, the new machine successfully stores gas stably in a large-scale production mode for the first time, thus greatly reducing the cost. After the generated gas is filtered, it is sent to a huge water tank to mix with cold water. Within half an hour, the prepared soda water will flow out, and the bottling process becomes convenient and efficient.
Go to the drugstore and get a soda

  Americans also wanted to copy the European practice at the beginning, imitating the production of soda water for bottled sale, but the bottling process could not keep up, and the U.S. Congress banned the import of bottled soda water from Europe. In 1806, Benjamin Silliman, a professor at Yale University, bought equipment for making soda water from Europe, and moved the equipment to a pharmacist’s shop, and began to sell soda water by the cup, which could only be eaten or taken away. This is the original soda water Beverage machine. In the United States, drinking soda has a sense of ritual of going to a bar or coffee shop.
  From the mid-to-late 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, soda water in the United States was only sold in pharmacies. In 1908, a pharmaceutical publication “Pharmaceutical Times” wrote: “The high-end pharmacies will carefully prepare medicines. Regardless of their original No matter how unacceptable the taste is, what customers get at the counter will be a pleasing finished product.” Add a few spoonfuls of syrup and coconut wine to these sodas, stir them thoroughly, and pour them into goblets. Almost became the first generation of bartenders. In 1875, ice cream and soda met, and the snow top drink was even more popular in drugstores. Drugstores that sell soda drinks have made miraculous profits in just a few years.
  The legendary drink Coca-Cola was also invented by a pharmacist. A small amount of cocaine was added to the original formula. The “Coca” in the name Coca-cola is taken from cocaine. Coca-Cola didn’t remove cocaine from its formula until 1903.

  Coca-Cola originated from a new type of potion that country doctor John Pemberton accidentally poured syrup into soda water in 1886. The potion had a peculiar taste and was later improved and named Coca-Cola (Coca-cola). People today also like to call it “Fat House Happy Water”, because it is a combination of sugar and caffeine, which can stimulate human nerves and enhance people’s sense of pleasure. The gas in the drink will bring refreshing and refreshing pleasure.
  In the era when sodas were sold in pharmacies, most sodas contained neuropharmaceutical ingredients, which can relieve the stress of housewives who are upset by heavy housework and salesmen who are frustrated by running around outdoors, but this wanton addition The behavior of the drug was soon stopped by the Food and Drug Administration because of the emergence of a large number of addicts. The “Pure Food and Drug Act” promulgated in 1906 has already prohibited the “addition” of food and drugs. However, during the prohibition period in the United States from 1920 to 1933, soda water became the best cover for spirits. Spirits relied on cocktails to lighten the alcohol concentration, and then added the light taste of bubbles, and successfully boarded people’s daily tables.
“Seal” the thing

  As we all know, the most attractive feature of soda is its “gas”. The carbon dioxide injected into the liquid cannot last for a long time and can easily slip away. A bottle of soda will become flat after a few hours. No fancy sugar drink. Therefore, sealing soda bottles has once become a key research and development project for many businesses.
  The original Schwepp carbonated drinks were served in ceramic containers, but glass bottles had to be used instead of ceramic bottles because “bubbles” would escape from the porous walls of the pottery. Around 1809, William Hamilton of Dublin invented a torpedo-shaped bottle. The shape of the bottle is very unique, the base is round, so it can never stand up on its own, if it needs to be displayed vertically, it needs a special shelf support. Why use such a design? It turned out that after the bottle was filled with carbonated beverages, it needed to be plugged with a cork. Cork shrinks as it dries. If the bottle is left standing, the cork will inevitably shrink and allow the gas to escape. As a result, the bottle is designed to lie down to ensure that the cork stays moist and prevents it from becoming deflated.

  However, using a cork to block the mouth of the bottle increases production costs, and the effect is mediocre, and sometimes the gas will slowly escape. In 1870, the British Hiram Codd invented a filling machine, using a spherical plug and making a groove at the mouth of the bottle for packaging. In 1873, this sealing method was further improved, and finally the cork was replaced with glass beads, which became the standard method for carbonated beverages. This kind of bottle is called a cod bottle. There is a glass bead in the bottle. It needs to be quickly filled with soda and then the bottle is turned upside down. The pressure of carbonic acid in the soda is used to push the glass bead to the mouth of the bottle. The glass bead is squeezed into the mouth of the bottle. In the rubber ring, so as to achieve the encapsulation effect. The soda in this bottle is called Bozi soda (marble soda). Before drinking soda, use a corkscrew shaped like a mushroom to slam down the beads on the mouth of the bottle. The marbles in the cod bottle are generally not taken out, and the empty bottle is directly recycled for reuse. In 1884, wave soda was brought to Japan by Scottish immigrants and reached the level of mass production. In 1953, half of the carbonated drinks in Japan were packaged in this way, and wave soda often appeared in Japanese animation.
  However, when using a Cod bottle to drink soda, the beads can easily block the mouth of the bottle when pouring, making it impossible to drink. This requires the use of straws, which is very troublesome. A soda distributor in Japan improved on the Cod bottle. He asked the factory to specially design a groove at the neck of the bottle, so that when the bottle is poured, the marbles will roll into the groove and get stuck, making it difficult to block the mouth of the bottle. However, if the tipping angle continues to increase, the marbles will still roll out. In order to get the marble in the wave soda, the Japanese who like to invent and create have also racked their brains. They also designed a bottle with a constriction near the bottom, much like a porcelain foot ring. After the bottle is opened and the marbles roll to the bottom of the bottle, the marbles will always be stuck at the bottom of the bottle below the shrinkage ring when pouring, making it difficult to roll to the bottle mouth. Later, because there were always children breaking the glass bottle to collect the marbles in the bottle and causing danger, soda manufacturers changed the glass bottle to plastic.
  As early as 1892, the American Panter Painter invented the crown cap. This sealing method is more economical and convenient. The Cod bottle sealed with glass beads is gradually replaced by it. The crown cap is still used in bottled drinks and bottled beer. to date. However, today, there are still poko drinks sold in the Japanese market, and there is even a poko soda bottle museum.

Everyone Can Make Their Own Dutch Water

  The introduction of soft drinks to China can be traced back to the late Qing Dynasty. By the time of the Republic of China, fashionable men and women had long been accustomed to the refreshing feeling brought by carbonated drinks. However, most researchers focused on coffee, tea and wine in the past on the diet of the Republic of China, and rarely discussed soda drinks. Only Fu Lingxi’s article “Research on Soda Customs in the Republic of China” gave a detailed introduction to this field. According to the “Qing Barnyard Banknotes”, soda water was called Dutch water when it first entered China, and it had appeared on the streets of Shanghai at least in 1887. The drink was light green in color and was sold in a pot with a lid. It was retailed as a street drink. . At that time, people used to refer to many imported goods from the West as “Dutch so-and-so”, such as snow peas, guinea pigs, and parsley, probably because almost all of the imported goods in China in the early days came from Dutch merchants.
  However, some people deduce that Dutch water is actually just mint water that has the function of cooling and relieving heat. In the late Qing Dynasty, the word soda actually had multiple meanings. “Yiwenlu” wrote: “Fluids are like water slurry, rippling and floating, and they become soda.” It is dry ice for industrial use.
  In 1906, Suzhou Ruiji Soda Factory was established, becoming one of the earliest soda factories in China. Since the early years of the Republic of China, various soda factories have been established one after another. There are American-funded enterprises Huailetoke Soda Water Company, British Zhengguanghe Foreign Firm, French Shang Kangcheng Winery, etc. National enterprises such as Shanghai Yili Soda Factory, Bawangsi Beer Soda Factory, Yuquanshan beer and soda company, etc. Among them, Watson’s company was originally invested and operated by foreign investors, and later it was wholly owned by Chinese entrepreneurs. Watsons Company occupies an important position in the history of Chinese soda water development.
  In the early years of the Republic of China, soda drinks were already very popular, “No one should use them”. Around 1915, the registered trademarks of soft drinks included fruity sodas such as mulberry soda, lemon soda, and fresh orange soda, as well as rose water soda, sand soda, and cream soda. According to the announcement of the Police Department at the time, the officially approved soda sales varieties include more than 30 flavors such as banana, grape, and pear. In 1916, in order to standardize the quality and hygiene standards of the soda industry, the Journal of the All-China Federation of Chambers of Commerce also published the soda business management rules.
  Chinese people, who are very skilled in eating and drinking, are not only happy to buy finished soft drinks, but also start to think about how to make them at home. The newspaper also published a list of homemade soda ingredients: sodium bicarbonate, dilute hydrochloric acid, syrup, and cold boiled water. At the same time, it indicated that the producers could add lemon syrup, banana syrup, etc. according to their preferences to make their own unique taste.

  Homemade sodas were not uncommon in the Republic of China, which led to the birth of small vendors selling all kinds of sodas in the streets and alleys. Of course, the price is much lower than that of branded sodas. Foreign products such as soft drinks have been quickly localized and improved in China through folk self-made methods. In the 1920s and 1930s, the price of foreign brands of soda water was about one yuan, while domestic brands could only be sold for seven or eight cents, while soda drinks at roadside stalls might only cost three or four cents. Zhou Zuoren introduced this kind of soda at a roadside stall in “The Man Who Sells Soda”. Wholesale vendors only sell it for one yuan per dozen, and they only sell it in places with many tourists. When there are many tourists, they can make a net profit of ten yuan a day.
  Many soda merchants use high-tech machines, distillation technology, strong light irradiation and disinfection in the production process as their selling points.
  There are more people selling homemade soda, and there is a lack of market regulation. Some people who are greedy for profit use mint leaf juice instead of peppermint oil. The water is not hygienic. Consumers often have diarrhea after drinking it. Tell the kids not to buy it.
  At the end of the 1920s, China’s soft drink industry had to accept a super competitor—the Coca-Cola Company of the United States, and began to lay out the Chinese market in the form of franchising. Shanghai Watsons, Qingdao Kangle Soda Factory, etc. began to import concentrates and machines from the Coca-Cola Company of the United States, bottled and distributed in China. However, as a newcomer, this “catfish” that once dominated the American market did not cause much splash. The reason is that the taste of Coca-Cola is sweet and bitter, and somewhat peculiar, which is quite different from traditional Chinese fruit-flavored drinks. Due to the instinctive rejection of Chinese consumers, several contracted bottling factories are operating at a loss.
  Faced with this situation, Coca-Cola began to promote its worldwide recognition and high-end positioning. The advertisements they published in the “Shenzhen” constantly emphasized that they are “popular in seventy countries in the world” and “global” and “everyone enjoys drinking”, equating Coca-Cola with the refined and elegant material life of the West. In the advertising picture, the person drinking Coca-Cola is a Chinese man in an elegant western restaurant wearing a long robe and mandarin jacket. This is unique in China where the advertisements of “Beauty” are all over the streets and alleys. By the 1940s, Coca-Cola’s advertisements in China began to highlight the elegance and fashion of American life.

  Since entering the Chinese market, Coca-Cola’s pricing has always been higher among similar products. In the 1940s, a bottle of Coca-Cola was equivalent to a bowl of beef noodles. In order to show consumers its production process and strict hygienic standards, its bottling company often organized people from all walks of life to visit for free. This was undoubtedly a bold publicity method at the time . From time to time, there are social news in the newspapers such as “a certain banquet consumes 600 dozen Coca-Cola at a time”. Coca-Cola gradually stands out in the soda market with its luxury and high-end brand image. In 1947, a Coca-Cola vending machine appeared in Shanghai. Put a copper coin, and Coca-Cola would automatically fall from the machine. In 1948, the sales volume of Coca-Cola in Shanghai alone had reached one million cases.
  Soda drinks are so popular, is there a special drinking place? There really are. During the period of the Republic of China, there were row upon row of coffee shops and tea restaurants in Shanghai. These places were expensive and elegant, and belonged to the wealthy class or social places for people with a certain social status. The most popular place for young people was the ice room where they could drink soda. In the 1940s, the ice-drinking room in Shanghai was open until late at night. Newspapers used photos of drinking soda to reflect people’s leisure life, saying that “rich people sit around in teahouses all day long, soda, Coca-Cola, and fresh orange juice are wonderful products in Queshu.”
  Interestingly, apart from humans, other animals are not interested in sparkling water. The taste of carbon dioxide dissolved in water is salty and irritating, which is not pleasing to them. The reason why humans like it may be the same as eating chili. .

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