The Mysterious Planet Under the Clouds

  Venus is the brightest planet you can see in the night sky. Venus appears very bright in the night sky, but its surface is actually obscured by thick clouds. No matter how thick the clouds are, they can’t stop astronomers’ curiosity…
Basic information about Venus

  Name: Venus (the second closest planet in the solar system to the sun)
  Radius: 6051.8 kilometers
  Average distance from the Earth: 40 million to 261 million kilometers
  Surface temperature: 438 to 482 ℃
  Rotation time: 243
  days Revolution time: 224.7 days (A year on Venus is shorter than a day)
  Number of satellites: 0 (Among the eight planets in the solar system, only Mercury and Venus do not have natural satellites)
  Planet characteristics: Earth-like planets covered by a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere and with a strong greenhouse effect
The profit and loss of Venus overturns the “geocentric theory”

  One afternoon in 1609, the Italian scientist Galileo Galileo successfully assembled a 10x telescope using several lenses he bought from an optical shop. At this time, the principle of telescopes had just been discovered by Dutch mirror makers, and few people knew about telescopes. The excited Galileo presented the telescope he assembled to the Doge of Venice. The Doge used it to see clearly the merchant ships in the distance and was greatly shocked. Soon, Galileo received a tenured professorship at the University of Padua. At the end of 1609, Galileo increased the magnification of the telescope to 20 times and pointed the telescope at the sky for observation. Since then, astronomy has entered the era of telescopes.
  With the help of telescopes, Galileo discovered that there were three satellites orbiting Jupiter, which shook the foundation of the then-popular “geocentric theory”, which believed that all celestial bodies revolved around the earth. In December 1610, Galileo’s observations of Venus completely overturned the geocentric theory. The Venus that Galileo saw in the telescope was not always round, but showed periodic changes from round to crescent like the moon. This waxing and waning change can only be reasonably explained if Venus orbits the sun.

Only heliocentric theory can explain the profit and loss of Venus

  After Galileo made this discovery public, astronomers throughout Europe pointed their telescopes at Venus and successively confirmed the phases of Venus. Since then, more and more people have begun to support Copernicus’s “heliocentric theory.” Venus is an inner planet, and its relative position to the Earth and the Sun is constantly changing. This causes the size of the illuminated part of Venus seen by earth observers to constantly change. This is the reason for the waxing and waning of Venus. The astrological changes of Venus provide clues for humans to understand the universe, but the true appearance of Venus is shrouded in thick clouds…
Mysterious planet under the clouds

  In amateur astronomical observing circles, Venus is notoriously difficult to observe. Because Venus is located between the Earth and the Sun, if you want to observe Venus from the Earth, you have to face the direction of the Sun. But most of the time, Venus is submerged in the sun’s light, and we can only observe it during the brief periods of dusk or dawn. Under ideal observation conditions, astronomical telescopes worth tens of thousands of dollars can allow observers to see Jupiter’s Great Red Spot relatively clearly, but only the blurry outline of Venus can be seen. Even if you look through a telescope with a larger aperture and better imaging, Venus will look just as blurry. In 1890, the Irish astronomer Clark lamented after observing Venus for a long time: “All you can see are clouds… There is no place to put your sight.”

The conditions are similar, but completely different from those on Earth

  Venus and the Earth are often seen as twins: Venus is about the same size as the Earth and is also a rocky planet. What’s more coincidental is that Venus, like the Earth, is in the habitable zone of the solar system and meets the conditions for the existence of liquid water. And astronomers do believe that there were once oceans and even life on Venus. However, although the innate conditions of Venus are similar to those of the Earth, today’s Venus is undoubtedly a restricted area for life. The maximum daytime temperature on the surface of Venus exceeds 460°C, which is about twice the maximum temperature of an oil pan. The most advanced space suits currently available to humans cannot withstand such high temperatures.
  The Soviet Union has launched more than ten probes to Venus. Among them, “Venera 4” carried a landing module and landed on the surface of Venus. However, the lander lost contact when it was still 25 kilometers away from the surface of Venus. After analysis, Soviet scientists believe that the equipment on the landing module was probably crushed by the atmospheric pressure of Venus. This shows that the atmospheric pressure of Venus is far more than the previously estimated 10 to 30 times the standard atmospheric pressure.
  The Soviet Space Agency was not discouraged and launched several more probes to Venus. As a result, “Venera 5” made the same mistake and lost contact at the same altitude as “Venus 4”. “Venus 6” had a slightly stronger pressure resistance. Some, but also lost contact at an altitude of 10 to 12 kilometers from the surface of Venus. The first human probe to truly successfully land on the surface of Venus was “Venera 7”. After a series of previous failures, the Soviet Space Agency increased the maximum pressure limit of the probe to 180 times standard atmospheric pressure. During the descent to the surface of Venus, “Venus 7” measured the atmospheric pressure on the surface of Venus to be 90 times the standard atmospheric pressure. How strong is 90 times standard atmospheric pressure? If the detector occupies exactly 1 square meter, the pressure exerted by Venus’ atmosphere on it is equivalent to the pressure of a car on the detector.

  Excluding a few special terrains such as mountains, the temperature on the surface of Venus is almost the same everywhere. This situation does not happen on Earth because the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth will periodically change the surface temperature. The reason behind the isothermal phenomenon of Venus is the strong greenhouse effect. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Venus is as high as 96.5%, while the concentration of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere is only 0.041%. Carbon dioxide molecules have no blocking effect on visible light, but the infrared rays radiated by the earth’s surface after being illuminated by sunlight will be trapped by the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This is the main reason why carbon dioxide causes the greenhouse effect – the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is like a trap that allows the heat of the sun to only The inaccessible quilt makes the surface temperature of Venus so high that all life is prohibitive.
  At a high altitude of 50 to 65 kilometers from the surface of Venus, clouds and mist formed by droplets of concentrated sulfuric acid are suspended. They are formed during the photochemical reaction of sulfur dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere of Venus. In addition to concentrated sulfuric acid droplets, there are also small amounts of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid droplets present at this height. These components are highly corrosive at high temperatures, which also makes it extremely difficult for the probe to land on the surface of Venus. The main function of concentrated sulfuric acid clouds is to reflect sunlight. The reason why Venus can become the second brightest celestial body in the earth’s night sky after the moon is because the concentrated sulfuric acid droplets in its upper atmosphere can reflect more than 75% of sunlight, and These clouds are more reflective of red light than blue light. Therefore, Venus appears slightly golden in the night sky.
Strange landforms

  Humanity has successively launched dozens of probes to Venus. Since there is no soil and vegetation on the surface of Venus, it is much easier to observe the geological structure of Venus than that of the Earth. Our understanding of this sister planet of the Earth is also deeper.
  There are a large number of “corona-like structures” scattered across the surface of Venus. They look like asteroid impact craters, but the coronal structures are not left behind by asteroid impacts, but are left behind by the hot material (such as lava) underground on Venus that rises up on the surface. The cracks underneath and multiple concentric circles are its signature features.

tile construction

  At 30° north latitude and 333° east longitude on Venus, there is a peculiar geological structure 37 kilometers wide and 80 kilometers long, showing a regular and repeated “ridge-trough-ridge” structure, which is called a tile structure. But it looks less like shingles and more like the bumps and dips on an underground garage ramp. This peculiar structure may be a “compression-tension” deformation landform caused by volcanic activity.
  Is there, or has there ever been, life on Venus? To answer this question, NASA will launch the “Leonardo da Vinci” Venus probe in 2028. It will only last 17 minutes after landing on Venus. During this period, it will transmit back as much information as possible about the atmosphere and surface of Venus. Lots of data. China will also launch an exploration mission to Venus. According to Long Lehao, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, China will launch a total of nine exploration missions to Venus, Mars and Jupiter before 2030.
  The greenhouse effect is an important mechanism for creating life. According to scientists’ calculations, if there are no greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere, solar radiation can only heat the surface air to a maximum of -20°C. The greenhouse effect makes the surface environment more suitable for life. Further detection of Venus will help answer an important question: If the Earth’s greenhouse effect is not controlled, will the Earth become the next Venus?

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