Robot security guards, robot drivers, robot salespersons, robot cleaners, robot babysitters and robot teachers… these are no longer just occupations that appear in science fiction, but are an important part of the national project that the Japanese government is about to implement. For the upcoming era of robots, people may be happy and expectant, or full of worry and doubt. What is certain is that it will bring an unprecedented revolution to human life.
The countdown to the robot era has begun…
In Japan, sales, dishwashing, cleaning and other tasks are all completed by corresponding machines. For the Japanese, it is very extravagant to spend precious labor on simple mechanical labor. Japan’s labor force is rapidly declining, with retired people over 65 accounting for a quarter of the total population.
The Japanese’s difficulty in trusting strangers began when the Tokugawa Shogunate. In the mid-17th century, the Japanese military government implemented a closed policy to exclude foreigners. The reason why the Japanese people were completely isolated from the outside world was the Christian rebellion in 1637. They worry that Western missionaries will gradually conquer Japan, destroy its unique life traditions, and overthrow the ruling class. Under the threat of the death penalty, the Japanese were forbidden to leave their home country, but at the same time people began to build more and more large ships suitable for long-distance navigation. Japan’s “lock country” policy lasted for more than two centuries. Today, 98.5% of the population of this country are indigenous peoples. Cheap labor immigrants are not accepted here, and the government intends to fill the labor gap with robots.
In January 2015, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry of Japan approved the industrial revolution strategy officially named “Robot Revolution”. The document sets the goal of becoming a “super robot power”, introducing robots into all areas of life, setting 2020 as the deadline, and holding the World Robot Summit this year. By that time, all the tasks of a quarter of the major Japanese companies will be undertaken by robots. They will not only work on the production line, but also pack dishes in restaurants, sort goods in supermarkets, and clean rooms in hotels. In Russia, Europe and the United States, these jobs are all done by immigrants from poor countries. Today, Japan has replaced humans with machines as much as possible in these fields.
Robot guides can be seen everywhere in the “Future Hall” of the Tokyo Science Museum. In Japan, many companies have launched robot molding products, both for enterprises and for the general public. These humanoid robots are expensive, ranging from tens of thousands of dollars to millions of dollars. The most famous of them is the ASI-MO robot produced by Japan’s Honda. It looks exactly like an astronaut, has hearing and vision, can recognize human facial expressions, understand human language, and most importantly, its hands and feet can complete complex movements. Its hands can unscrew the lid of the cup, and it can even use sign language, its feet can run off the ground, and its top speed can reach 9 kilometers per hour.
In the “Future Pavilion”, ASIMO appears 6 times a day, taking visitors for 10 minutes each time. 10 am is the first time. Unlike previous mechanical robots, it is terribly similar to real people: the skin is made of silicone, which currently looks the same as human skin, and artificial muscles can control facial expressions and gestures. In 2012, its creator, Ishiguro Hiroshi, said in a speech at the Moscow School of Economics: “Smart robots can do many things, not only in technical aspects, such as cleaning or working in factories, but also in reading news on TV and going to school. Teach children. In some aspects, intelligent robots can do better than humans because they are not tired, have a much lower error rate than humans, and do not need to pay. For example, in the television news broadcast industry used to convey information, intelligent Robots do better than humans.”
Bionic robots are robots that imitate humans or other creatures in appearance. Japanese people chase the humanoid robots in it almost fanatically. Forty percent of the world’s robots are made in Japan, and Japan is also The country with the largest number of robots in the world.
In addition to Japanese companies, there are also companies in the United States that are developing similar products. One company named “Boston Dynamics” has recently entered the public eye. The company was founded in 1992 and was acquired by Google the year before. Boston Dynamics has always maintained cooperation with the US military, the most famous being the robot dog project. This kind of robot dog can walk on smooth ice and other complicated terrains, and can maintain balance without falling down even if kicked. At the same time, the company has also developed a robot that can stand on two feet, Atlas, which is also sponsored by the US military. It has two sets of vision systems that can walk and climb on rugged terrain. U.S. companies are clearly interested in the ability of robots to search, detect, and carry cargo during the war.
Humanoid robots still have many mechanical problems. The complexity of human limbs requires high mechanical parts design, and there is still much room for improvement in the robot’s ability to walk upright. It can be seen from recent robot running competitions held abroad. Walking is still a big challenge for companies with insufficient technology accumulation.
Ishiguro firmly believes that in the near future, smart robots will become an indispensable part of people’s daily lives like smart phones and computers. Tanareid, an adult intelligent robot made by Ishiguro Hiroshi, looks ordinary in appearance. It is a dignified woman, smiling and beckoning to people passing by, her eyes blinking. In the “Future Hall” of the museum, Tanareid is responsible for consultation at the service desk, answering some simple questions, and being able to keep simple conversations with people. Japanese children happily surround it, trying to take selfies with it.
”In Western culture, the idea of large-scale robot development was first mentioned by the Czech writer Karel Capek in his works: artificial workers in factories began to rebel against humans. The word’robot’ also originated in the Czech Republic, the original meaning It is’heavy work’. It was translated into Japanese in 1923, referring to intelligent machines, and literally translated as’artificial humans’. In other words, Japan initially regarded robots as friends and as species similar to humans. “Science Museum” The tour guide of Miraikan said.
Japanese manufacturers attach great importance to psychological effects when developing intelligent robots. For example, when a robot looks like a child, it will make people want to buy, raise, and spoil it. In the museum, there is a 130 cm tall child robot with a huge battery on its back, which looks like a character in a Japanese anime. It can walk around the museum at will, showing visitors its skills: climbing stairs, playing balls, and welcoming people. It can distinguish moving objects and can talk to 3 people at the same time.
ASIMO walked to the booth and saw that many people were already seated, holding various mobile phones and cameras to take pictures at it. It paused, as if it was calculating the path, slightly changed its direction, and walked in the direction of no one. Going to the center of the circle surrounded by the crowd, it hopped, ran back and forth around the room, and began to sing after saying something in Japanese—this was requested by the children sitting in the front row.
All these robots are still in their rudiments and have not yet begun mass production. But at Tokyo’s Narita Airport, the robot attendant is already on duty: announcing the timetable and providing each waiting passenger with a bottle of water. In addition, this robot has been put into use in 4 Japanese hospitals, responsible for taking medicine and other items.
The number of lonely elderly people in Japan is very large. The Japanese government produces many advanced “social intelligent robots” for them every year. Japan is the country with the largest proportion of retirees in the world. About 60,000 people are over a hundred years old. There are 270 nursing homes with intelligent robots that can communicate with the elderly.
The social robot pepper is an accompanying intelligent robot specially designed for social interaction. Buying a friend who can distinguish human emotions and respond with laughter or words is completely feasible in Japan. But before purchasing, you need to fill out a questionnaire on the manufacturer’s website, upload your ID, and wait for the certification to pass. The basic robot kit is only 213,000 yen, but in order for the robot to work fully, assembly costs must be paid, and monthly maintenance and insurance must be paid. The total cost is 1.18 million yen-about 10,000 US dollars. Despite the high prices, the first batch of 1,000 robot peppers were sold out within a minute once they were launched in Japan.
Since June 2015, more than 10,000 robot peppers have been sold. After full payment, you must wait 26 months to receive the goods. For those who cannot afford pepper, there will be a cheaper option this year. The 10 cm high Kirobo Mini is an intelligent robot driver developed by Toyota. Drivers no longer have to worry about inattention or fatigue while driving. But the goal of this mini robot at the beginning of the sale is not just to be a driver, but also to accompany the lonely Japanese. Kirobo can imitate children’s movements-sitting, shaking, having a toddler’s tone, and being able to recognize emotions. If your voice is sad, it will tell jokes to cheer you up.
Digital Akihabara, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo used to sell spare parts for televisions, and is now the world’s largest and latest digital technology market. In the evening, people come here to play traditional slot games in the lobby and read comics in a comic shop to relieve the pressure of the day. Nearby is the famous robot restaurant, there are buzzing pet dinosaur robot toys in the lobby, and robot war performances. Robots, dinosaurs and transformers are all controlled by operators. They are not really fighting, but the young people sitting on the side will still argue over who will win the final victory, just like discussing who will win the world championship in a boxing match. Similarly, they also hold posters with the names of robots they support.
Hundreds of robot dogs of various types and coat colors are placed on a small stall outside the restaurant. This is the most popular electronic dog AI-BO in Japan. It is the first robot friend in human history. It was produced by Sony. The original purpose was not for military or factory operations, but for communicating with people. Puppies wag their tails to please their owners, and can even charge themselves. After purchasing the dog AIBO, the owner needs to personally regulate their behavior and teach them how to play at home, just like a real puppy. For the first few days, smart dogs cannot stand alone, play with balls and bones, and cannot communicate. If you hurry up and train it a few days before you buy it, it will be able to highlight its main functions a few days later, but if you don’t continue to praise it, it may cause it to lose its behavior and even lose its “intelligence” forever: Robot Dog No longer picking up plastic bones, talking, and guarding the house. The caress and care of the owner is the spiritual charge for its continued existence. The name of this smart dog is derived from a game, the official abbreviation is AIBO (Artificial Intelligence Robot), and the Japanese name is “Friend”.
Confidence crisis caused by robots
For the upcoming era of robots, people may be happy and expectant, or full of worry and doubt. Some robot supporters adopt a blindly following attitude towards robots. Scientists at Georgia Institute of Technology in the United States were surprised to find after the experiment that even if the emergency robot took the test participants in a circle twice in the simulated fire, they could not get out of the fire at all, they still chose to continue to follow the robot. “People overestimate the cognition of machines,” said researcher Alan Wagner. “They believe that robots will never make mistakes.”
Such excessive trust in robots can have fatal consequences in extreme cases. The Tesla driver Josh War Brown ran into a large truck while driving in the car, only watching movies. The cause of this accident was the widespread trust in technology in society. “Users will soon have trust in technology. At present, automated systems are slowly entering our daily lives, but they are not fully qualified for the tasks we expect them to complete.” said Alan Wagner, a robotics expert from the Zurich University of Technology in Switzerland .
Like the hostile attitude towards technology that is currently spreading in Germany, blind trust is not desirable. Stefan Schal, dean of the Max Planck School of Artificial Intelligence from Tubingen, said: “We have to make people understand what robots can and cannot do. Now many people are afraid that robots will one day Surpass us humans, but this is impossible. ”
In Japan, where robots have been used for a long time, people’s trust in robots is most obvious. “Sometimes, people don’t trust each other, especially the elderly, who are full of mistrust to outsiders. But their attitudes towards robots are completely opposite.” Japan’s most famous robotics researcher Ishiguro Hiroshi concluded through observation. . Nowadays, robots are used in many areas of Japanese daily life, such as elderly care, housework assistants, airport guidance and even hotel reception. Robots are regarded as popular life assistants, because here, the aging problem of the population is increasing day by day, and robots can just fill the vacancies caused by labor shortages.
However, in Germany, this kind of trust in robots is far worse. Here, the field of using machines is mainly in factories. Germany, China, South Korea, and the United States are the four countries with the largest investment in digital equipment in the world, and they are also beneficiaries of these equipment. Robots can significantly improve our competitiveness. The well-known sports brand Adidas has launched a production plan called “Rapid Production” in which robots and 3D printers are used to produce sports shoes. In the 23 years before that, Adidas has been OEM production in countries where labor is cheap.
In Germany today, robots have also left the factory. During a week on the topic of “the future of work” on German TV, machines were discussed as “job killers”, and their impact on the labor market caused a lot of debate. “Except for the industrial field, robots will not take away our jobs. Only when there is a labor shortage in the future, they will be put into use. For example, in the nursing industry.” Stefan Schal said, “If robots can help take care of me The 91-year-old aunt allows her to stay in her own home longer, which is a very good thing.”
Artificial intelligence builds the future world
In the next 25 years, the most important technological change is that the world will become more intelligent. This is the future direction and the future track of mankind.
Artificial intelligence and human cooperation are the most efficient
Most of the time, artificial intelligence operates in the background and we can’t see it. For example, artificial intelligence can help us diagnose diseases and solve legal problems. Pilots can operate on an airplane for only 8 minutes, and other times are controlled by artificial intelligence. This is something we could not imagine 5 years ago. In many fields, artificial intelligence is replacing traditional manpower.
For example, let artificial intelligence control the vehicle. In the past year, car accidents have destroyed 1 million lives, but artificial intelligence-controlled cars will not be distracted and will not be affected by other things. In many fields, the capabilities of artificial intelligence have surpassed the functions of the human brain. For example, Internet search engines have unlimited storage capacity and extremely fast computing speeds, and their capabilities are beyond the reach of humans.
Artificial intelligence is far from the way of human thinking. It is not a human-like brain. Therefore, it and human intelligence can complement each other and form a relationship of mutual dependence and coexistence. In history, the industrial revolution and the electrical revolution have profoundly changed human society. The energy obtained by mankind is completely different from natural energy. For example, driving a car at high speed relies on artificial energy. Now, each of our families, factories, and farms can share this energy. We don’t need to create it ourselves, but can be purchased as cheap daily necessities, which liberates a lot of creativity.
In the next 25 years, artificial intelligence will become a commodity like artificial energy. For example, the current car uses artificial energy. If more artificial intelligence is added, it is equivalent to installing a “brain” in the car. It can be combined with the cloud and big data, and artificial intelligence becomes a kind of Facilities and services closely related to our lives. You don’t need to create artificial intelligence, you just need to buy it like you pay for utilities, and the price is very low.
Many people worry that artificial intelligence will replace manpower and cause unemployment, especially when artificial intelligence now has the ability to learn, they can “evolve” to become smarter and smarter. But in fact, these robots will also create more job opportunities for humans. 150 years ago, 70% of Americans were farmers, but now only 1% of their descendants are farmers. If you go back to 150 years ago and you tell them that you may be unemployed, they will worry about technology stealing their job opportunities, but in fact, technology has created new jobs, and now people can do real estate. Do IT, do finance, not just be a farmer. These are the conveniences brought to us by technology, and artificial intelligence will also bring us a better future. For those tasks that require very high efficiency, robots and artificial intelligence will certainly replace humans, but innovation is a process of constant trial and error. It is not an efficient process. These tasks cannot be left to robots, and robots cannot complete them. Replace human role.
Virtual reality creates a simulated world
We want equipment to interact with us instead of being indifferent like machines. When Spielberg made a movie, he interacted with the computer by waving his arms. In addition to gestures, you can also interact with other small gestures, such as blinking your eyes and communicating with the machine. And the current artificial intelligence technology allows us to go further and more exciting.
Now there is a nanochip that can read our emotions. This technology allows us to enter the computer system, which is VR-virtual reality. That is when you walk into a virtual environment, it is equivalent to your computer surrounding you. VR glasses were invented in 1989. At that time, I predicted that VR glasses would be on the market within 5 years, but I was wrong because it was really too expensive for the market price of 1 million US dollars. It’s much better now. Everyone can afford it. In 10 years, everyone will be able to use VR glasses. As the next platform after smartphones, the world of VR is infinitely vast. Let me explain why.
There are two types of virtual reality technologies. An immersive experience that allows you to enter a completely virtual world after wearing VR glasses, such as the dinosaur world and space. When you put on the other kind of glasses, you will enter mixed reality, that is, you can see some things that don’t exist in the real environment. You can even touch these things with virtual hands as if they really exist. Designers can improve the design, and users can experience the products they want to buy.
In addition, VR glasses can also be used as virtual screens, through which we can watch cartoons, movies, and books. As long as you wear VR glasses, many devices are available for you to read at any time in front of your eyes. This is mixed virtual reality. It is a great technology to mix the real world and the virtual world.
Virtual reality allows us to feel the real existence, allowing us to experience and interact, because it is consistent with real people’s actions and language, and can convince us that this is a real experience. This is why virtual reality will become a social media. The most powerful part of virtual reality is to create a simulation world, so that we can experience those things that are impossible to appear in our lives, this will be a great change.
Everything can be tracked
Our world is changing at an incredible speed. If we travel through time and space and go back 25 years ago, explain to friends and family the current smart devices, and tell them that many technologies and services are free, they must be incredible. So we still have to believe in the future, including the belief that computers will become smaller and smaller, and that one day it may become one with the human body. Thirty years ago, people would ask why computers must be made smaller and smaller? But today the door card we used in the hotel is the result of the chip getting smaller and smaller. Many things that seem crazy now may be realized in the future.
I believe we are still on the first day of change. Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, etc. will have great changes and will have a transformative impact on our lives. We are at the beginning of an era of greater change than the Internet. I believe that the greatest products in the next 20 years have not yet come out, and it is not too late for you to start accepting and understanding them now.
The threat of “robot killers”
Advances in science and technology have made it possible for future automatic weapons to independently select and attack targets. And this kind of lethal automatic weapon system (LAWS) is also called “killer robot”. They may be an aircraft with a weapon system, or a micro tank with a weapon platform. In short, they can decide who to let go. dead.
Putting these killer robots into the battlefield can greatly reduce the danger and burden of human soldiers. However, there are also many artificial intelligence experts who worry that these robots will bring more dangers and security risks. For example, they may be used by unethical behaviors, or even become hackers’ control platforms. Nevertheless, in recent years, countries around the world have invested in the research and development of automated weapons.
So, is the era of “Terminator” really approaching?
As night fell, the sentries on duty near the “38th Line” of North Korea and South Korea began to feel tired, while the gun robots deployed by South Korea were still vigilantly monitoring the situation within a few kilometers. It was equipped with highly sensitive heat. Sensing sensors and infrared night vision cameras will immediately “report” to the South Korean command center once an illegal intruder is found. After receiving the firing order, they will use their Daewoo K3 machine gun or grenade launcher to shoot at the target.
This robot is a SGR-A1 robot sentry developed by South Korea’s Samsung in 2006. The cost is US$200,000. The main function is to replace the traditional sentry to prevent illegal intruders in military areas or borders. Although this robot does not currently have the ability to make autonomous decisions and can only perform guard tasks under the supervision of the operator, it is actually equipped with an algorithm to identify friend or foe, and it can distinguish the identity of the enemy or foe by asking the target to reply to the password through voice. It will be needed in the future. Under circumstances, it can also automatically detect and judge targets and complete autonomous shooting.
The development of military robots
SGR-A1 is not the only robot used in the military. In 2011, a Belarusian company designed an unmanned remote control weapon platform called Adunok-M. This robot has a track system, just like a small armored car, it is also equipped with a grenade launcher and a machine gun, which can attack and destroy targets within 800 meters according to the received remote control instructions. The designer said that it can also choose to use a 7.62 mm light machine gun or a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun according to different tasks.
In addition, there are the “Gladiator” combat robots of the US Marine Corps, and the “Guardian” unmanned combat vehicles used by the Israeli army for border security missions. It can be seen that the era of unmanned weapon systems has come quietly.
However, what degree of autonomy must be achieved before it can be called a completely independent military robot? According to the standards of the US Department of Defense, once autonomous military robots are put into operation, they must be able to automatically identify and lock the target, and then autonomously decide what measures should be taken against them. As long as it can complete this set of procedures without unmanned control, it is a qualified autonomous military robot. At present, the standards of the US Department of Defense allow unmanned weapon platforms to have two modes of automatic and manual operation, but at this stage, when it comes to attack tasks such as firing, these weapon platforms still use manual operation mode. However, experts believe that under the current technical conditions, it is not difficult to develop a mature and lethal autonomous weapon system, which can take decades to achieve it in just a few years.
Controversial autonomous weapon system
The emergence of more and more military robots has also caused more and more controversies in the world. Many scientists believe that once this type of autonomous weapon system is put into use, it will trigger the third revolution in war following the invention of gunpowder and nuclear weapons. This is not alarmist, because just in 2015, a “crazy” robot “accidentally” killed an assembly worker in an American car factory, and then his family was involved in the crime of accidental death. The robot manufacturer filed a lawsuit.
Also in 2015, at a technology conference in London, the famous scientist Stephen Hawking issued a warning that robots will control humans. Hawking said: “In the next 100 years, robots incorporating artificial intelligence will become smarter than humans. At that time, we need to ensure that robots are consistent with our goals. Our future depends on the increasing power of technology and the wisdom of our use of technology. A race between them.”
Tesla CEO Elon Musk also holds the same view. In a speech at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he described artificial intelligence robots as the “biggest existential threat” to mankind. He believed that it would only take 5 years for artificial intelligence to bring extreme danger to the world.
To this end, more than 1,000 experts and entrepreneurs in the field of science and technology jointly issued an open letter to boycott automatic weapons. The letters included the famous scientist Stephen Hawking, Tesla CEO Elon Musk and Apple. Founder Steve Wozniak. The letter reads: “The key question for mankind today is whether to start a global artificial intelligence weapons race or prevent it from starting.”
Scientists said that because automatic weapons will use artificial intelligence to select targets without human intervention Therefore, once this kind of robot with autonomous decision-making ability and behavior ability falls into the hands of terrorists, dictators and warlords, the consequences will be unimaginable. Although the original intention of various countries to develop military robots is to reduce the casualties on the battlefield, doing so also lowers the threshold for humans to enter the battlefield, and may even intensify the military power competition between major powers.
As early as 2013, a non-governmental organization initiated the “Stop the Development of Killer Robots” campaign. They believed that the existence of lethal automatic weapon systems violated the basic dignity of human beings. It is very inhumane for robots to choose who to kill. Robots may be authorized to kill anyone who shows potentially threatening behavior, including civilians without weapons.
With the efforts of all sectors of society, this issue has finally received the attention of the United Nations. In 2014, the United Nations began to discuss the use of lethal autonomous weapons and considered drafting international laws to restrict the development and dissemination of killer robot technology.
However, at the 2016 UN Conference on Specific Conventional Weapons Convention, among the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, only China clearly expressed support for the establishment of a treaty to control robotic weapons. The United States took a negative attitude towards this because of concerns about military constraints. Russia, the United Kingdom and France did not make a clear statement.
Among the 120 countries participating in the meeting, although most of the countries expressed their support for the United Nations to take reasonable control of autonomous weapon systems, only 19 countries clearly stated that they should stop the development and use of lethal autonomous weapon systems, which are more influential The only countries in China are Algeria, Mexico, Venezuela, Pakistan and Egypt. A country with advanced robotics technology like Japan is concerned that control may affect the development of domestic robots, so it is more cautious about control measures. However, the conference finally decided to set up a formal expert meeting to discuss issues such as the control of “killer robots”.
What makes these big countries behave so vaguely and ambiguously when it comes to controlling autonomous weapons? There is only one answer, and that is interest. Obviously, these killer robots will be more efficient on the battlefield than flesh and blood human soldiers, because they can fight day and night without feeling tired, without food and sleep, without being restricted by physical conditions, or affected by emotions. , They will not feel fear when killing, nor will they have mercy on the enemy, they will only complete all the tasks set mechanically.
Although these killer robots are currently expensive, with the development of technology and the mass production of robot parts, the cost of making these robots will only get lower and lower in the future. In contrast, in a superpower like the United States, once a soldier casualty occurs, the government needs to pay an average of US$850,000 per person in pensions to their families. From a cost-effective perspective, it is more beneficial for the government to replace real people with killer robots. .
However, what experts worry about is that once these killer robots are put on the battlefield in the future, whether they can follow the accepted rules of engagement and ethics, and whether they can distinguish between innocent civilians and soldiers of the enemy, and after the enemy soldiers surrender. Will they continue to fire, because after all, they are not drones that humans can fully control, but killer robots with complete autonomy.
Ground-to-air autonomous weapon system
Although lethal autonomous weapon systems may bring various dangers to the world, many countries are still vigorously developing and using autonomous weapons out of consideration of military interests.
Among them, South Korea and Israel have begun to use surface-to-air semi-automatic air defense missile systems, and the United States has also developed the X-47B unmanned combat aircraft, which is the first invisible human intervention in human history and completely computer-controlled unmanned aircraft. , Is also the first stealth unmanned bomber that can take off from an aircraft carrier and fall back on its own.
In this regard, Russia is not to be outdone. The design of an unmanned turret is also used on Russia’s latest T-14 Armata main battle tank, and omnidirectional photoelectric and radar detectors, as well as two types of interceptor bombs, have been installed so far. The tank with the highest level of active protection technology so far can effectively suppress the three generations of main battle tanks most commonly used in the West.
The United Kingdom has also developed an unmanned fighter jet “God of Thunder” similar to the American X-47B. The aircraft uses a triple flight management system, including flight navigation, guidance and control systems, ground control systems, and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance management systems. , And also applied cutting-edge technologies including stealth technology and automatic control technology, which is an important part of the British strategic UAV experiment plan.
Maritime autonomous weapon system
In addition to land and air autonomous weapon systems, countries are also racing to develop maritime autonomous weapon systems, because maritime autonomous weapons can not only navigate autonomously on water or underwater for a long time, but also have intelligent control capabilities that can implement close-range intelligence reconnaissance in important sea areas. , Environmental data collection, water or underwater persistent reconnaissance and surveillance, anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures, logistics support and many other tasks have become an important development direction of global naval equipment.
The United States was the first country to develop maritime autonomous weapon systems, and its technology has always been a global leader. The “Sea Hunter” developed by the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is a special unmanned boat. Although the boat is unmanned, it can be compatible with remote monitoring and control stations and can be 35 knots (64 kilometers). /H) for 48 hours of continuous sailing.
In Europe, Thales of France and ASV of the United Kingdom are also jointly developing an unmanned surface vehicle that will meet future MCM combat missions. This vehicle can be deployed on any military platform, ship, shore or port, and can be equipped with a variety of anti-mine systems including unmanned submersibles, towed sonar, and it also has excellent slow towing capabilities, and Compared with traditional equipment, it has higher reliability and lower manufacturing cost, and will become a key winning factor in future mine warfare.
Although the original intention of various countries to develop lethal autonomous weapon systems is to protect their own soldiers from harm, allowing these killer robots to develop is likely to pose a greater threat to mankind because they are not subject to any moral, legal and Responsibility constraints may make life and death decisions beyond human control at any time.
At present, the best way to control this crisis is to introduce relevant international laws to restrict the use of autonomous weapons, but this requires the joint efforts of all countries in the world. But now, we can only pray, hoping that the era of the “terminator” will never come.
Will robots threaten humans?
With the continuous development of artificial intelligence, some scientists worry: in the near future, artificial intelligence technology will surpass human wisdom, and even control or destroy humanity in turn. This catastrophic prediction came from a group of recognized “smartest people” in the world, including Microsoft founder Bill Gates, British scientist Stephen Hawking and American “technical maniac” Elon Musk. Some scholars even believe that the point in time when artificial intelligence surpassed human beings-the “singularity” is approaching, and it is likely to be more than ten years later. Will this really happen?
The danger facing humans: robots are smarter than humans
What kind of robot is dangerous artificial intelligence? British cryptographer and computer pioneer Alan Turing designed a screening experiment: a computer competes with a person to convince an observer who cannot see them to believe that he is a real human being. When the robot deceives at least half of the observers, it is considered to have passed the test. Currently, no computer is close to passing the test. But Turing also pointed out that when the super-intelligent robot passes the Turing test, human retribution will come.
The intelligent robot that humans worry about is capable of thinking and acting like humans. Actions here should be broadly understood as taking actions, or making decisions about actions, rather than physical actions, and they have perception and self-awareness.
What is the ability of artificial intelligence to destroy mankind? Researchers from the Institute for the Future of Humanity at the University of Oxford explained that artificial intelligence does not eliminate humans like nuclear weapons, but will gradually replace humans. What is really terrifying is their intelligence. They will be smarter, better at socializing, and more capable of work than humans. If a super robot walks into a bar, it will attract men and women more than humans, then they will be really scary.
Bill Gates said: “If we can control robots well, machines can benefit mankind, but if machines develop beyond human intelligence in a few years, then they will become a major concern for mankind.”
Will robots be smarter than humans?
How high can the IQ of a machine be? Does the machine produce self-awareness? Will robots be smarter than humans? Some scientists believe that it will be sooner or later that the IQ of robots surpasses that of humans, and there are even American scholars who have clearly proposed the point in time when artificial intelligence surpassed humans.
The first person to use the term “singularity” to describe this technological change was American mathematician and science fiction writer Ferno Vincci. Since then, high-tech entrepreneur Ray Kurzweil has written in his book “The Singularity Is Approaching” “” further enhances this concept. Kurzweil believes that the exponential development of technology will inevitably lead to the emergence of superhuman intelligence. Kurzweil is very confident in his prediction, he even set the time to reach the “singularity” as 2029. By 2029, computers will not only understand our language, they will even be able to joke with us. Kurzweil is one of the most famous futurists and artificial intelligence experts in the world. Prior to this, he had accurately predicted the development trend of science and technology. In 1990, Kurzweil predicted that the computer would defeat the chess champion before 1998. In 1997, the computer “Deep Blue” developed by IBM successfully defeated the chess champion Gary Kasparov. While the Internet was still a tiny network used by a few scholars, Kurzweil predicted that the Internet would connect the whole world together in the near future. Kurzweil stated that the IQ of computers will surpass that of humans in more than 10 years. In other words, the intelligent behaviors of computers in the Turing Test will be exactly the same as humans.
Rodney Brooks, professor of robotics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said: “After crossing the’singularity’, we and our world will be very different from now, and the definition of what is a human and what is a robot will also become Different.” Some futurists claim that just as there is a “singularity” at the center of a black hole that invalidates all known laws of physics, information technology is also moving towards such a “singularity.” By then, artificial intelligence machines will be smarter than their creators-people. These futurists believe that after this point, everything will develop at an unpredictable and unimaginable speed and form. One of the founders of the Artificial Intelligence Singularity Institute, Ilize Yudkuski, is currently studying so-called “friendly artificial intelligence.” He said that what he is most worried about is that some tech geeks will invent a robot that can evolve but has no sense of morality, which will bring disaster to mankind.
Martin is one of the most outstanding astronomers in the world. He believes that although the earth has existed for 45 million centuries, this century is very special. In almost the entire history of the earth, threats have come from nature, but from now on, the biggest danger comes from ourselves-especially artificial intelligence. Martin believes that the size and processing power of the human brain is limited by chemistry and metabolism. Maybe humans are very close to these limits. But silicon-based computers have no such restrictions. The fact that artificial intelligence is not restricted by the Earth’s biosphere makes it a more deadly threat. When these machine builders have the greatest construction capabilities, the inner solar system and interstellar space will become their ideal stage. And innovation in this field is moving forward rapidly.
Will robots destroy humans?
Some scientists worry that artificial intelligence is developing at a frightening pace and it will lead to the ultimate demise of mankind.
Not long ago, the famous scientist Stephen Hawking issued a warning again that in the next 100 years, artificial intelligence will be smarter than humans, and robots will control humans. Hawking and Tesla CEO Elon Musk jointly issued an open letter, they believe that the development of artificial intelligence should be controlled. The letter stated that if smart machines cannot guarantee safety, humans may fall into a dark future. On the one hand, artificial intelligence makes human beings less and less thinking, on the other hand, it may become smarter and smarter, thus threatening human survival.
Musk also warned that in at least 5 years, smart machines may bring extreme danger. He believes that artificial intelligence is like “summoning demons.” When Musk delivered a speech at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, he described artificial intelligence as the “biggest existential threat” to humanity. He said: “I think we should be highly vigilant about artificial intelligence. If I am asked to guess the greatest threat to human survival, it may be artificial intelligence.”
Oxford University philosophy professors Nick Bostrom and James Ballat believe, “Now we humans are like a group of ignorant children playing with a dangerous bomb. Even artificial intelligence created out of good intentions, it still has the tendency to commit genocide. Without careful checks and balances, one has self A system of awareness, continuous self-improvement and goal-seeking will develop to a level that is absurd to us in order to accomplish its goals”.