“Predator” changes the world

  Have you seen lions and polar bears hunting? If there are, you will know how powerful and terrifying they are. People usually refer to these aggressive and destructive killer species as “predators”. This word originated from the Latin “robbery” or “predation”.
  Starting more than 3.5 billion years ago, although predators have caused countless destruction and deaths, from the perspective of biological evolution, they may also have contributed to many leaps. From the production of the earliest cells to the production of animal bones, to the huge size of dinosaurs, predators may have played a role in it. Including the evolution of human beings, why we become smart, to some extent, it can also be said that predators are staring at us-because “those that may kill you will force you to become stronger.” Of course, the predator itself has become stronger in the training.
Cell production

  The origin of life on Earth is still a mystery. It may originate from the bottom of the primitive ocean, it may also originate from the valleys of the early continents, it may even originate from Mars… We only know that biological cells appeared 3.43 billion years ago.
  Except for viruses, all living things on the earth are composed of cells. Therefore, the appearance of cells is one of the most important events in the history of life, and its appearance may be related to the threat of predators.
  Before the emergence of cells, life may consist of naked molecules floating in water. Some researchers believe that among all the molecules, some are like predators, they attack and destroy other molecules, and “kill” them. In order to prevent attacks, some molecules have adopted some defensive measures, that is, wrapping themselves with a membrane (later evolved into a cell membrane), thereby “keeping the predator out”. As a result, the first cells were produced.
  Of course, this is just a statement about cell formation. Researchers on the origin of life believe that we do not rule out that cell life forms evolved from other mechanisms, but the existence of cells may be thanks to “predators.”

Cells must be connected to make animals and plants
The emergence of eukaryotes

  We know that living things are divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes include all bacteria, as well as the lesser-known archaea, which are extremely tiny. Eukaryotes are the animals, plants and fungi that we often “communicate” with. They are large and complex organisms. Researchers believe that the earliest cells may be prokaryotes.
  It is generally believed that the earliest eukaryotes appeared about 2 billion years ago, and their production was a leap forward for prokaryotes. The cells of eukaryotes are more complex than those of prokaryotes and therefore require more energy than they do-these energy are provided by a structure called “mitochondria”. So, how did the original eukaryotes obtain mitochondria?
  Scientists are trying to find answers in genetics. Since many eukaryotic genes are similar to archaeal genes, and mitochondrial genes look a lot like bacterial genes, one view is that eukaryotes evolved from archaea. Archaea swallowed bacteria as predators. The bacteria were not digested in the end, but survived in the archaea in the form of mitochondria.
  However, there is a problem with this view: Archaea do not seem to swallow bacteria today. Then, archaea and bacteria may be fused together to better metabolize each other. It is a relationship of mutual assistance rather than a relationship between predation and being prey.
  However, not everyone is willing to give up this predator view. It has been suggested that since archaea cannot swallow bacteria as predators, can bacteria not invade archaea as predators? They are smaller than their prey and attack by digging into the prey. Studies have shown that this possibility exists, again supporting the view that eukaryotes are produced by predator behavior.

Mitochondria are the engine of our cells
Evolution from single cell to multi-cell

  Eukaryotes are more complex than prokaryotes, but the first eukaryotes are single-celled and usually small. To become bigger, eukaryotes must first become multicellular.
  Biologists have seen in the laboratory that predators can promote the conversion of single-celled organisms into multi-celled organisms. For example, a single-celled eukaryote called Chlorella, after being introduced into predatory microorganisms, evolved into multicellular within 10-20 generations.
  Let’s look at another example. We know that animals evolved from flagellates. The flagellate is a kind of flagellate, which is a predatory single-celled eukaryote.
  In 2007, a biologist studied the genome of flagellates and found that there are some genes in flagellates that can encode 23 kinds of cadherins. These cadherins are usually used in animals to bind their own cells to each other, but this is not the case in flagella.
  Further research by biologists found that most of the cadherins in the flagellates are located at the base of the cells, fixed on the surface of the base and distributed around the flagella. They attract the passing bacteria and then pull into the cells for consumption by the flagellates. . This suggests that the cadherin, which binds the cells in our body today, originally helped single-cell predators catch their prey.
Evolution of animals

  The evolution of animals seems to be thanks to predators. In just 100 million years, they have evolved many species, and many species have hard bones, and most of these bones have defensive effects. There is evidence that it is the predator that prompted the animal to use its bones to defend its own safety. For example, some early animal bones resemble armor in appearance, and studies have confirmed that the internal structure of these bones helps to resist attacks by carnivores.

Cadherin junction cell

  The development of life from water to land is a major event in the history of biological evolution. About 370 million years ago, fish began to move to land and evolved into amphibians and reptiles. This process is often described as an “invasion” of the land. Some researchers hold different views. They believe that this may also be a way for fish to avoid predators in the water.
  Of course, we should also note that other animals such as millipedes, insects, snails, etc. have appeared on land long before fish. Therefore, there is still another possibility for fish to climb onto land in order to better prey.

  Whether it is passively avoiding predation or actively predating, it is obvious that the fish initially landed are related to the predator.
The huge size of dinosaurs

  Since the earliest quadrupeds were born, in the following 150 million years, the animal kingdom has flourished and diversified, and dinosaurs and mammals have appeared. Some dinosaurs later grew into the largest land animals in history. Why do they grow so large, and what causes them to grow like this? This problem has been plagued by paleontologists, and they have tried to explain, one of which is related to predators.

Diplodocus is one of the longest sauropods ever

  Dinosaurs may not be constant temperature like mammals, so they can evolve into a huge volume without considering how to dissipate heat. The larger herbivorous dinosaurs can protect themselves from predators. In order to be able to prey better, carnivorous dinosaurs have also become larger, which in turn prompted herbivorous dinosaurs to evolve into larger sizes, and so on, until both predators and prey have become giants.
The formation of the real brain

  Obviously, whether it is studying the origin of tiny cells or studying the evolution of the largest animals, one point of view is that predators are involved in some way. So, did predators also play a role in our human evolution?
  Human ancestors learned to walk on two legs about 7 million years ago, but it wasn’t until 2 million years ago that they acquired one of the most important characteristics of Homo sapiens: a real brain. And this may be due to predators.
  Two million years ago, our ancestors suddenly changed their diet and switched to eating nutritious and easy-to-digest foods. As a result, their intestines and stomachs do not need to struggle to digest food. After countless generations of reproduction, their intestines begin to shrink, and the energy used to maintain the long rectum is saved and transferred to the development of the brain.
  This means that humans at that time may have been able to meet the energy demand brought about by the increasing brain through continuous meat eating. In other words, early humans may have grown larger brains by transforming into predators.
The left and right points of the brain

  The way we use our brains may also be related to predator behavior in the first place. As we all know, we usually divide the brain into left and right hemispheres. You may have heard this saying: Creative people are “left brain” developed. In fact, this is not the case, but the difference between the left and right brains does exist. Individuals who cannot distinguish brain activity will eventually develop dyslexia or dyslexia.
  In the past few decades, it has become apparent that many animals distribute brain activity in a similar way. Some researchers believe that in the early stages of evolution, animals found that using their left brains to handle daily activities was sufficient, thus freeing their right brains, allowing it to focus on detecting unexpected objects-such as predators, and making quick decisions. reaction. In this way, one side of the brain is dedicated to finding food (including prey), and the other side is for rapid response to predators, which makes the brain more developed and more efficient. This idea has been confirmed from the research of the chicken. If chicks do not distribute neural activity between the two hemispheres, they will lose the ability to “forage and respond to the threat of predators.”