How to care for patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease need family care in their daily life, and family members need to master the daily care methods, and also need to pay attention to some problems during nursing.

In the process of human aging, there will be different degrees of decline in intelligence. Under normal circumstances, there is a slight decline in intelligence in old age, but it will not have a large impact on life, study, and work. However, elderly people with Alzheimer’s disease show serious mental decline and have a serious impact on life, study and work. At the same time, people’s lack of knowledge about Alzheimer’s disease prevents them from effectively taking care of patients, which poses a greater threat to the lives of patients. Alzheimer’s disease is a disease in which cognitive function has been impaired, and social life functions have been impaired and mentally changed. Cognitive dysfunction refers to the existence of obstacles in memory and intelligence, the inability to effectively remember the past, and the stagnation in thinking, and the inability to think effectively.

Causes of Alzheimer’s
The factors that cause Alzheimer’s disease are very complex. It is known that about 100 diseases can cause Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease is divided into multiple types: one is Alzheimer’s disease, the other is vascular dementia, the third is mixed dementia, and the fourth is other types of dementia. Most of the patients are Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for up to half. The second place is vascular dementia, which accounts for 20%. In addition, some patients will suffer from Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia at the same time, that is, mixed dementia, accounting for about 20%. The remaining 10% of patients belong to other types of dementia, including degenerative dementia, intracranial dementia, etc. If the patient has a family history or is affected by social and psychological factors, it can also cause Alzheimer’s disease.

Stages and clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s
(1) The staging of Alzheimer’s

Alzheimer’s disease can be divided into three stages: the first stage is the amnesia stage, the second is the mental disorder stage, and the third is the dementia stage. The first-stage amnesia is a mild form of dementia. Compared with the normal elderly, the patient has obvious sluggishness in the physiology and is very forgetful. When memory impairment occurs, cognitive impairment will gradually occur. The patient has the characteristics of poor orientation and gradually reduces the range of activities, but can complete it independently in terms of daily life ability without the assistance of others or complete assistance. The duration of the first-stage patients is longer; the second-stage mental disorder is a moderate dementia, and the patients further aggravate the cognitive impairment, and will be accompanied by agnosia, apraxia, and aphasia. The range of motion is further reduced, and the mask face will increase and muscle tone will increase. It is difficult to complete various activities autonomously in daily life and requires others to take care and help. If you go out, you will get lost, and you will have the problem of not being able to talk to others in terms of communicating with others; the third is that the dementia is a severe dementia, the patient is in severe dementia symptoms and is in a silent state, and the bowel and bowel are completely incontinent and completely Lost the ability to take care of themselves, being in a state of complete dependence on the caregiver.

(2) Clinical manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease

The main symptoms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease are embodied in four aspects: cognitive function damage, social function damage, mental behavior abnormality, and nervous system damage. Among them, cognitive impairment is manifested in the following aspects.

1. Impairment of memory

Impairment of memory production is the core symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. The early clinical manifestations are that recent events are easy to forget, and there are greater difficulties in preserving memory and learning, and they cannot quickly master new technologies and lack the ability to master. The patient at this time will not have a major impact on daily life. After the continuous progress of the disease, the degree of forgetting of recent events will be aggravated, and the memory of long-term events will gradually be damaged. Patients with severe dementia have severely impaired memory for both recent and long-term events, and they lack self-awareness about the problem of forgetting.

2. Perception barriers in visual space

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease have obstacles in recognizing the spatial structure. They cannot accurately find their own room when living at home, and often get lost when they go out.

3. Obstacles to Orientation

The patient has obstacles in orientation, and shows disorientation in time, place, person, and self-orientation, especially the disorientation in time appears earlier.

4. Language barriers

In the early stage, the patient showed difficulty in finding words, and it was also difficult to understand the semantics. In the expression, the words were also inconsistent or redundant. Various types of aphasia problems will appear after the disease continues to progress, and patients in the advanced state can no longer speak or are in a silent state.

5. Disuse

Patients cannot independently complete technically complex movements in daily life, such as household appliance applications and washing in daily life, and they will become completely unable to take care of themselves when their condition gradually worsens.

6. Ignorance

I can no longer recognize familiar items, and my family and my appearance also show a sense of strangeness.

7. Impairment of executive function

In terms of daily work, it shows reduced working ability, reduced organizational ability, reduced coordination ability, reduced management ability, etc.

The impairment of social life function is an important indicator of medical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Early patients show a significant decline in overall planning, planning, and decision-making ability, and their working ability is increasingly reduced. After the dementia disease continues to progress, the ability to take care of themselves in daily life is gradually lost, and in the late stage, they will be incontinent and bedridden, and they are completely dependent on the caregiver in life.

Patients with dementia will have persistent or fragmented mental behavior symptoms, early depression and anxiety, and even negative thoughts in their ideology, and hallucinations and delusions, hallucinations and delusions during the gradual development of the disease. The content is mostly related to hurting yourself. Patients are often in an unstable and agitated state, often producing resistive and aggressive behaviors. Some patients also experience eating disorders and abnormal activities.

Daily care of patients with Alzheimer’s disease
In the daily care of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, the following three aspects need to be paid attention to.

(1) Holistic care

In order to take good care of the daily living and hygiene of patients, caregivers should make good arrangements for the living environment of patients, open windows regularly to replace indoor air, and create a comfortable living environment for patients. Bathe patients regularly and cut nails frequently, so that patients have good personal hygiene. If the patient has mobility impairments, help the patient change positions frequently and massage the pressured parts to prevent bedsores. The underwear and quilt of the patient should be changed and washed frequently. If the patient is a female, pay attention to the hygiene of the urinary system to avoid infection. Lead the patient for one hour of outdoor activities every day to prevent the occurrence of calcium deficiency and cause osteoporosis.

(Two) psychological care

Psychological care needs to be paid attention to when nursing patients with Alzheimer’s disease, especially for patients with mental abnormalities and emotional barriers, psychological care is needed to relieve the patient’s condition. In addition, after rationalized psychological care is given to patients with mobility and delirium, the patients can be placed outdoors, which can prevent the patients from feeling restrained and produce mental stress, thereby achieving the purpose of reducing behavioral disorders. First, the psychological care of anxious patients. Patients are prone to feelings of loss and insecurity. Caregivers should provide patients with sufficient lighting and keep the environment quiet, guide patients to engage in interesting activities, and provide relaxing music to relieve patients’ bad emotions. Second, the psychological care of depressed patients. The caregiver should listen patiently to the patient’s narration, avoid coercion about what the patient does not want to do, and encourage the patient to exercise properly to strengthen their physical fitness. Again, the psychological care of the patient is agitated. Caregivers should avoid using stimulating language to stimulate patients, and encourage patients to take appropriate exercises to promote relaxation. Finally, indifferent to the psychological care of patients. Caregivers should increase indoor lighting, and place items that patients love, such as photos, etc., communicate with patients in caring language, so that patients can rely on caregivers, and then ease the emotions of patients through the process of psychological dredging.

(3) Clinical Nursing

For patients with smoking habits, appropriate language should be used to advise to quit smoking, and patients should be inspected regularly to prevent patients from being burned by cigarettes or fire, etc.; patients should be checked frequently to prevent swallowing of dirt. If patients are seriously ill, they will be implemented 24-hour monitoring process. When taking medicines, patients should follow the doctor’s advice to supervise and help patients take medicines to avoid the occurrence of patients forgetting to take medicines or taking the wrong medicines. Some patients take medicines again because of forgetting, and effective nursing care can prevent patients from taking medicines wrongly.

Five major issues that need to be paid attention to when nursing
After the elderly suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, family members and patients must cooperate with each other, and give them more care and love in life, emotion, and material aspects. However, the following issues should be paid attention to when nursing.

(1) Prevent the patient from being irritated

Elderly people have the phenomenon of deficiency of qi and blood and decline of the function of internal organs. They cannot be stimulated by external factors in the process of natural decline. If they are stimulated, they will cause Alzheimer’s disease. The elderly should have a positive attitude. Having an optimistic and happy attitude and loving life can effectively prevent the rapid decline of intelligence. At the same time, it should keep a certain distance from the surrounding environment and the crowd, so as to delay the process of mental aging.

(2) Prevent damage to brain cells and cause diseases

Among the triggers of Alzheimer’s disease, encephalitis, cerebrovascular disease, etc. are all triggers. In daily life, it is necessary to avoid taking long-term blood pressure lowering drugs, sedative stabilizers, etc. Promote the progression of the disease.

(3) Ensure adequate nutrition and avoid vitamin deficiency

Alzheimer’s disease is closely related to diet. Studies have found that high-quality protein foods such as milk, fish, meat, eggs, and animal organs can strengthen brain functions. Vegetables, fruits, and soy products can effectively vitamin B, vitamin C, and vitamin E. If the elderly supplement these nutrients daily, they can delay the progress of mental retardation. In addition, drinking and smoking should be contraindicated, because smoking will have an effect on the small arteries and cause contraction and narrowing of the small arteries, thereby promoting the development of the disease.

(4) Taboo lack of exercise and mental activity

After investigation and research, it is found that the long-lived elderly who adhere to appropriate exercise and mental activity can promote blood circulation and metabolism under continuous maintenance, and can promote the activity of the nervous system and improve the ability to regulate. This process can effectively prevent or continue intelligence decline.

(5) Unattended patients with contraindications

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease are in the process of continuous development of the disease, and will cause bad behaviors such as hurting themselves and others because of the disease. Special personnel need to be assigned to take care of them to prevent accidents.

It can be seen from the above that patients with Alzheimer’s will have bad behaviors due to the decline of memory and intelligence, which will hurt themselves and others. The family members of patients should master the daily nursing methods to promote the relief of the patient’s condition and take care of the patient to avoid accidents. Quality care.