In real life, some girls are prone to white lips, dreaminess, insomnia, fatigue and sleepiness, etc. The underlying problem is probably anemia. It is worth noting that the “2017 Global Nutrition Report” clearly pointed out that the number of women with anemia in my country ranks second in the world, and the problem of anemia should not be underestimated.
Anemia refers to the decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood, and the hemoglobin level is lower than the lower limit of the normal value, resulting in the ineffective delivery of oxygen to various tissues and organs. There are many components of red blood cells. The lack of one or more of these components can lead to anemia. These nutrients include iron, protein, copper, vitamin C and B12, and folic acid, among which the most common is iron deficiency anemia.
Calculated according to the daily iron requirement of a normal person, the appropriate intake of iron for adults is: 12㎎/day for men and 20㎎/day for women. There are several reasons for iron deficiency, such as:
●Increasing iron requirements and insufficient iron intake are more common in infants and young children, adolescents, pregnant and breastfeeding women.
●Iron absorption disorder is common after most gastrectomy and gastrointestinal dysfunction caused by various reasons.
●Excessive iron loss, such as chronic gastrointestinal blood loss, menorrhagia, blind diet and alveolar hemorrhage, hemoglobinuria, etc.
What are the symptoms of iron deficiency anemia
●Weakness, dizziness, headache, vertigo, shortness of breath, etc., and pale.
●Pale skin and mucous membranes, palpebral conjunctiva, lips, and nail bed are the most common objective signs.
● Irritability, irritability, inattention, and pica.
●Children’s growth and development are retarded and mental retardation is low.
●Insomnia, tinnitus, memory loss, numbness of hands and feet.
●Stomatitis, glossitis, etc.
What to do if you have iron deficiency anemia
As the saying goes: make up for what is lacking, and make up for iron deficiency. This is true, but the difficulty lies in discovering and correcting the underlying cause, as well as being able to choose iron supplements that meet the needs of patients.
The treatment of iron deficiency anemia usually includes drug therapy and food supplement therapy. Oral iron is the first choice for iron supplementation. Such as ferrous sulfate 0.3 g, 3 times a day; or iron dextran 50 mg, 2 to 3 times a day. It is recommended to take it after meals, as gastrointestinal reactions are small and easy to tolerate. Medication should be continued for at least 4-6 months after hemoglobin returns to normal, and the drug should be discontinued when ferritin is normal.
In the treatment of iron-deficiency anemia, in addition to iron supplementation, the cause of iron-deficiency should also be found and improved, and the primary disease should be treated first to completely cure the anemia. If iron-deficiency anemia caused by menorrhagia, menstruation should be regulated; for infants, adolescents, and pregnant mothers with iron-deficiency anemia caused by undernutrition, diet should be improved; those caused by peptic ulcers should be treated with acid suppression; partial eclipse, picky eaters, and long-term For vegetarians, excessive weight loss, etc., bad eating habits should be corrected first.
How to feed iron deficiency anemia
Shibu is an adjuvant treatment and cannot replace necessary medications. Cattle, sheep, pork, liver, animal blood, fungus, wolfberry, jujube, spinach, sesame paste and other foods are rich in iron. However, simply high iron content does not mean good iron absorption. Iron in food is mainly in the form of heme iron and non-heme iron.
Heme iron is the iron contained in pig liver, pig blood and animal food. It combines with porphyrin in hemoglobin and myoglobin and can be directly absorbed by intestinal mucosal epithelial cells, so the absorption rate can be as high as 20% to 30% .
Non-heme iron is mainly found in plant foods and dairy products. Non-heme iron must be separated from the combined organic matter (such as amino acids), and can be absorbed after the duodenum is reduced to divalent iron ions. The general absorption rate is not 10%. For example, spinach has a higher iron content than other vegetables, but because it contains iron chelating agents such as tannic acid, iron absorption is lower. However, phosphate, phytic acid, oxalic acid, yolk phosphoprotein and other foods such as grains, vegetables, eggs and other foods form insoluble iron salts with non-heme iron, which will hinder iron absorption.
How to prevent iron deficiency anemia
● Increase the intake of animal food
iron deficiency anemia direct way to prevent is to increase the intake of dietary iron intake is mainly iron-rich animal foods: such as liver, lean meat, eggs, whole blood of animals, birds , Fish, etc. Although vegetables also contain iron, less than 10% can be absorbed by the human body. Therefore, iron supplementation should be based on animal foods such as meat, chicken, and fish that are rich in hemoglobin iron. At the same time, pay attention to animal foods. Cholesterol and saturated fatty acids are high in content, and large amounts of intake will bring about problems such as excessive energy, protein, and lipids. Therefore, diets that supplement iron must be appropriate.
● Increase the intake of vitamin
supplements containing vitamin C, fresh vegetables, fruits, can improve absorption of dietary iron. Vitamin A, Vitamin E and Vitamin B2 are beneficial to the absorption of iron. Iron-deficiency anemia often coexists with vitamin A deficiency. If vitamin A deficiency is supplemented with vitamin A, even if the iron intake remains the same, the nutritional status has been improved.
● selection of iron-fortified foods
some of the iron nutrition on the market currently fortified foods, but also effective measures to improve the nutrition of iron, such as iron-fortified soy sauce, iron-fortified flour. People who are prone to iron deficiency, such as pregnant women, nursing mothers, infants, the elderly, patients with gastrointestinal diseases, etc., can choose according to their needs.
● reduce the consumption of food containing more acid
oxalate, carbonate, phosphate will affect iron absorption phytate in plant foods, in enriched when eaten more oxalate vegetables, such as tomatoes, Spinach, beets, soybeans, and coriander can be blanched in boiling water before cooking to reduce the oxalic acid content in vegetables; whole wheat grains are rich in iron, but it contains phytic acid, which can be reduced by fermentation.
● reduce the consumption of food containing tannic acid, food polyphenols
absorb polyphenols affect iron tannic acid in tea, coffee, cocoa, and infants and young children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, the elderly, patients with digestive diseases prone People with iron deficiency should not eat or eat less of the above foods.
● oral iron supplementation treatment
when evaluated through nutrition and clinical characteristics, the physiological and biochemical examination to determine micronutrient deficiencies and can not supplement the daily diet, taking nutritional supplements may be appropriate, but it should be strictly in accordance with the clinician’s orders, to avoid overdose. When iron is deficient, iron preparations such as ferrous sulfate, iron dextran, ferrous gluconate, and iron sorbitol can be used for oral iron supplementation.
Health reminder: Anemia must be paid attention to, because there may be many diseases hidden behind it, such as malnutrition, gastrointestinal ulcers and other gastrointestinal diseases, uterine fibroids and other gynecological diseases, and malignant tumors of the blood system. For the iron deficiency caused by the disease, it should be combined with the treatment of the original disease and timely iron supplementation. If moderate to severe iron-deficiency anemia has occurred, do not blindly take supplements, and should cooperate with medication under the guidance of a doctor.