From the discovery of the first patient in 1981, to the successful antiviral treatment now; from the initial talk about “Moxa” to the deepening of clinical treatment research, the field of AIDS prevention and control, diagnosis and treatment has achieved a huge leap in the past three decades. Your impression of it may also need some change.
Need to face up to the phenomenon of “both ends”
According to data released by the National Health Commission on November 30, 2019, as of the end of October 2019, a total of 958,000 people living with HIV had been reported across the country, and the overall epidemic continued to be at a low prevalence level. However, it is worth noting that in recent years, the situation of newly-infected people with AIDS has shown a “two-headed” trend, that is, the number of reports of virus-infected persons and patients in the young and elderly groups has increased significantly.
Since there are “two ends up”, then “two ends are ruled”. In order to enhance the awareness of AIDS prevention and treatment, maximize the detection and treatment of AIDS-infected people, and curb the upward trend of sexual transmission of AIDS, the National Health Commission and other 10 departments jointly issued the “Implementation Plan for Containing the Transmission of AIDS (2019-2022)” in 2019, which clearly requires Strengthen the publicity and education of the elderly, so that the awareness rate of AIDS prevention and control knowledge for the elderly reaches more than 90%; at the same time, strengthen the sexual health and AIDS prevention education in ordinary middle schools and secondary vocational schools, so that the awareness rate of AIDS prevention and prevention knowledge for young students reaches more than 95%.
The detection window has shrunk to within 2 weeks
The whole course of HIV infection is divided into acute phase (2 to 4 weeks after initial infection), asymptomatic phase (usually 6-8 years), and AIDS phase. The acute phase of HIV has a high viral load and is highly infectious. , The risk of transmission is 26 times that of the asymptomatic period. Therefore, HIV testing is extremely important to protect the health of oneself and others and prevent the spread of AIDS. As early as 2014, the HIV testing window in my country has been shortened from the previous 3 to 4 weeks to less than 2 weeks. This will effectively reduce the possibility of HIV transmission during the window period when there is no antibody production, and not only enable patients to detect infections early Circumstances can further reduce the probability of domestic AIDS transmission.
Saliva testing is popular
HIV detection methods mainly include virus antibody detection, virus culture, nucleic acid detection and antigen detection, of which antibody detection is the most commonly used method.
In the past, people who wanted to know the status of HIV infection had to go to the hospital to get accurate test results. However, many people refuse to go to the hospital for testing because they are afraid of the “unusual look” of others, which delays the prevention and treatment of the disease. Now, besides going to the hospital for testing, there is also a convenient and accurate method for HIV infection testing-saliva to test for AIDS. You don’t need to go to the hospital to draw blood, just follow the instructions and use a swab to scrape some oral mucosal exudate. After 20 minutes, the test results can be seen, and the accuracy rate is as high as 99.84%. All provinces and cities’ CDCs now have free voluntary counseling and testing sites for AIDS, and those with positive saliva test results can choose the nearest testing site for free blood testing.
From terminal illness to chronic disease
With the continuous understanding of the mechanism of HIV replication and survival in the body, in 1987, Zidovudine, the first antiviral drug to treat AIDS, came out. However, at first, the antiviral effect of a single drug was not good. Even in 1993, a clinical trial of the combination of two drugs for the treatment of AIDS was still not effective. The turning point of antiviral treatment occurred in 1996. With the emergence of combined antiretroviral therapy, which is the well-known “cocktail therapy” that uses 3 antiviral drugs in combination, the effect of AIDS treatment has been greatly improved. At present, my country has provided free treatment of cocktail therapy drugs for all HIV carriers and those infected, which has played a major role in mitigating the domestic AIDS epidemic.
If the patient receives long-term effective antiretroviral therapy, the progression of HIV in the body can be reduced to a lower level. The less HIV in the patient’s body and the higher the immune function, the better the patient’s life. Therefore, the current technology has been able to effectively control AIDS, making it more like a chronic disease like hypertension and diabetes, rather than a terminal illness.
In February 2018, a researcher at the Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the South China Institute of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine successfully converted B lymphocytes directly into T lymphocytes with physiological functions through reprogramming in the body. This scientific research provides new ideas for T cell anti-tumor therapy, AIDS and other personalized therapies for T immunodeficiency related diseases, and is expected to restore the lost immunity of AIDS patients.