Home care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

The concept of COPD is very similar to what people call emphysema. The main symptom is chronic, progressive dyspnea. The symptoms of COPD will worsen in winter and spring, and most patients will have more obvious symptoms after exercise. There is no cure for COPD, and patients can only be treated with drugs. Good family therapy can help delay the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life of the patient. So do you know how to do home care for patients with COPD?

Quit smoking
As we all know, smoking is the culprit that causes lung disease, and naturally also includes COPD. It not only causes COPD, but also promotes the progress of COPD. Although this is a view that many people know, many smokers can’t quit completely, and some patients even think it is their hobby, even if they live a few years less for this, it doesn’t matter. When the disease really progresses to an advanced stage, it is irreversible to quit smoking. It can be seen that the first thing in home care for patients with COPD is to quit smoking as soon as possible.

Adequate rest and appropriate activities
Severe COPD patients need adequate rest, so family members should assist the patient to take a comfortable position during home care to prevent severe cough symptoms. However, patients with severe COPD need to take a forward-leaning position to fully rest, and on this basis, use auxiliary respiratory muscles to relieve symptoms of dyspnea. When the patient’s condition gradually stabilizes, family members can assist the patient in proper exercise based on the severity of the patient’s condition, but it is appropriate that the patient does not feel fatigued and should ensure that the patient’s symptoms will not be aggravated. In addition, during the rest period of the patient, the family should adjust the indoor temperature and humidity appropriately, open the windows regularly for ventilation, and take measures to keep warm to prevent the patient from getting a cold or aggravating the condition.

Medication care
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cannot be cured, so patients must receive long-term drug treatment. The purpose is to relieve symptoms and delay the development of the disease. It is recommended that family members and patients go to the hospital together to formulate a long-term treatment plan under the guidance of an expert, and follow the doctor’s prescription for medication During this period, it is not allowed to change the medicine or delete the medicine amount without authorization.

Oxygen therapy
When the patient has symptoms such as dyspnea and low blood oxygen, the family members need to use the oxygen cylinder or oxygen bag at home to provide oxygen therapy to the patient, and oxygen therapy is naturally needed. If the patient uses an oxygen cylinder, the family should assist the patient to use a nasal cannula or mask to inhale oxygen, and control the oxygen flow rate between one liter and two liters per minute. Regardless of whether the patient uses an oxygen cylinder or an oxygen bag, the family members should perform appropriate warming and humidification operations before inhaling oxygen to prevent the patient from inhaling dry and cold oxygen in the body when the patient is short of breath, thereby aggravating the cough symptoms.

Respiratory function exercise
The emergence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will seriously affect the patient’s respiratory function and cause the patient to have symptoms of respiratory disorders. Therefore, family members need to increase the patient’s breathing rate to ensure the amount of oxygen inhaled. In view of the fact that chest breathing can bring fatigue to patients, family members should help patients to perform deep breathing exercises, lip-reducing breathing exercises, abdominal breathing exercises, or diaphragmatic breathing exercises to alleviate the symptoms of dyspnea. Deep breathing exercises can increase the effective breathing volume of the patient’s lungs, thereby increasing the amount of oxygen inhaled and the amount of carbon dioxide emitted. It is important that long-term adherence to deep breathing exercises can help improve the elastic function of the patient’s lungs and further improve lung function. The deep breathing exercise method is: inhale through the nose, exhale through the mouth, and breathe deeply. Practice once a day in the morning and evening, and the time of each exercise can be controlled between fifteen and twenty minutes. It is worth noting that during the exercise, you should ensure that the body and mind are relaxed and not too nervous; the method of lip shrinking breathing exercises is to shrink the lips to form a whistling shape, and then slowly exhale and inhale. When the patient shrinks the lips, It can form a certain resistance to increase the expiration time, further increase the airway pressure, and effectively alleviate the symptoms of discomfort; the method of abdominal breathing exercises is to place a pillow or a book on the patient’s abdomen to ensure that the abdomen is straight when exhaling and the abdomen when inhaling Contraction, it is worth noting that this type of exercise will increase the patient’s physical exertion to a certain extent, so training should be started when the patient is in the recovery period; diaphragm breathing training requires the patient to be in a lying or standing position. The patient needs to place both hands on the upper part of the abdomen and on the front chest, and then breathe out slowly through the nose.

Keep the airway smooth
When human lung diseases appear, it will naturally cause coughing symptoms and produce sputum. Therefore, family members should closely observe the changes in the patient’s sputum during home care. Once the patient is found to have increased and viscous sputum, they should Urge patients to drink plenty of warm water to dilute the sputum in the respiratory tract. In addition, ultrasonic atomization inhalation therapy can also be used to reduce phlegm in accordance with the doctor’s advice. Not only to resolve phlegm, family members must also help the patient to effectively expectorate to keep the respiratory tract smooth. Before each expectoration, you should inhale deeply and then cough up phlegm vigorously.

Psychological care
Psychological care is also an indispensable part of home care. Because the patient has been tortured by the disease for a long time, bad emotions will naturally form in the heart, and this situation will affect the recovery effect. Therefore, family members should carry out psychological care for the patient’s psychology, give the patient full care and company, strengthen communication with the patient, so that they can feel the warm family atmosphere, and do not express impatient emotions to the patient, so as not to be affected by their cranky thinking. Heal confidence, if necessary, you can go to the hospital to seek help from a psychiatrist.

For patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, treatment is only a small part. As the saying goes, “three-part cure and seven-part nourishment”, it can be seen that care is far more important than treatment. Therefore, family members of patients must learn the correct nursing methods during home treatment. Patients provide high-quality nursing interventions to help patients return to normal life as soon as possible.