Many people think of osteoporosis as a “minor disease”. However, it is the most common cause of death and disability in the elderly. It is ignored because most patients have no direct symptoms in the early stage, and joint pain in the whole body will appear in the late stage. Even accidental bumps can cause fractures. Therefore, osteoporosis is also called “silent disease” and ” Silent killer”.
Poor lifestyle leads to loss of bone density
With the advancement of China’s aging society, osteoporosis has become one of the important public health problems in China, and postmenopausal women and middle-aged and elderly people are high-risk groups of osteoporosis, mainly due to the decline of estrogen levels in the body. For the same reason, long-term use of contraceptives, steroids and other drugs can cause women’s bone density to decrease and increase the probability of osteoporosis.
In addition, people who like to smoke, drink and lack exercise are also easy to be recruited. Because a lot of tobacco and alcohol can cause the loss of calcium in the body and affect bone health; lack of outdoor sports makes people receive less and less opportunities for ultraviolet radiation and active bones. Ultraviolet rays can promote the synthesis of vitamin D. Exercise can significantly accelerate the blood circulation of the bones throughout the body. The contraction and relaxation of muscles have a direct stimulating effect on the bones.
In addition, people who are keen on dieting to lose weight are also prone to osteoporosis. Because adipose tissue in the human body can be transformed into estrogen through biochemical action, increase calcium absorption, promote bone formation, and prevent osteoporosis.
Therefore, the above-mentioned people should go to the hospital for bone mineral density testing on a regular basis and monitor their bone health in a timely manner.
“Encryption” the bones, the first is the strongest
Before the age of 35, the bone mass is increased in women, after which the bone mass is gradually lost, and after 50 years of age, the bone mass is lost rapidly; while in men, the bone mass is increased before the age of 40, and then the bone mass is gradually lost. Therefore, before the age of 35 for women and before the age of 40 for men, they should do everything they can to increase bone mass to prevent osteoporosis.
So, how can young people increase bone density?
Increasing calcium intake Calcium is the basic component of bones. Increasing calcium intake can increase bone density. In the daily diet, many foods are rich in calcium, such as milk, beans, dark vegetables or seafood such as kelp and shrimp skin. At the same time, pay attention to a balanced diet, quit smoking and limit alcohol, drink tea and coffee in moderation, and drink less carbonated beverages.
Moderate exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can promote the conversion of vitamin D in the body, thereby helping the intestine to absorb and digest calcium from food through vitamin D. The sun can choose to be before 10 in the morning or after 4 in the afternoon.
Increase the weight-bearing exercise. Compared with the elderly, the bones and muscles of young people are still at their peak. Exercise can increase bone density and strengthen muscles. Young people can choose daily climbing, climbing stairs, weightlifting and other weight-bearing that oppose gravity. Exercise, the effect is better.
Medication treatment requires “seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages”
Once osteoporosis is diagnosed, it must be actively treated under the guidance of a doctor to avoid serious consequences such as fractures. There are many types of prescription drugs for treating osteoporosis, and attention should be paid to “seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages” when using them.
Bisphosphonates: belong to bone resorption inhibitors, used to prevent and treat osteoporosis caused by various reasons. However, as the drug inhibits osteoclasts for a longer time, osteoblasts and other cells will also be affected; and the drug may increase the risk of atrial fibrillation in women.
Calcitonin: By inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, it prevents fracture and perforation of bone trabeculae and increases or maintains bone mass. For low back pain caused by osteoporosis, especially pain during acute vertebral fractures, this drug can be used as one of the first-choice drugs. However, long-term use of this drug in patients will lead to a decrease in new bone, an increase in old bone, and a deterioration of bone quality.
Sex hormones: used for the prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, because it may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and breast cancer, it is mostly used for short-term relief of bone pain symptoms.
Selective estrogen receptor modulator: It is a synthetic non-hormonal preparation that can selectively bind to estrogen receptors in some tissues for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, this drug has not been used for a long time, and little is known about its side effects.
Vitamin D3: It has a significant effect on improving bone quality, relieving neuromuscular pain, and reducing the risk of spinal fractures. However, long-term use of the drug in large amounts can cause vitamin D poisoning.
In addition, there are many types of calcium agents available in clinic and on the market, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be selected according to needs, effectiveness, and economic conditions.