The United States tries to seize the opportunity of 6G technology layout

  In August of this year, US President Trump approved the launch of 6G trials in the United States, and he himself tweeted to express his expectations for 6G. More than a year before, the Federal Communications Commission of the United States has decided to open the 95GHz-3THz (Terahertz) frequency band as the test spectrum, and officially launched the 6G technology research and development. This shows that when the 5G mobile communication technology has not yet been widely popularized, the competition in the 6G field has quietly begun.
  The new generation of mobile communication technology
  6G based on spatial multiplexing is called the sixth generation of mobile communication technology and is an extension of 5G. Relevant data shows that, compared with 5G, 6G has the following new features: First, disruptive communication technology. 5G networks are already operating at very high frequencies (millimeter wave bands), 6G networks will use higher frequency spectrums, and terahertz wave communications will be applied. The second is an innovative network architecture. Although 5G networks have worked hard to achieve very effective network settings, future network applications still put forward higher and tightly coordinated new architecture requirements. Therefore, in different communication technologies, it is necessary to consider the decomposition and virtualization of network equipment and the integration of the access network and the backbone network. The third is to integrate intelligence in the network. In the future, each network element in the 6G network-whether it is a centralized computing unit or each terminal at the edge-can integrate intelligent computing capabilities. By sharing information between users or operators, unsupervised machine learning will facilitate real-time network decision-making through predictions.
  Terahertz technology and spatial multiplexing technology are the key to 6G. The terahertz frequency band refers to 100GHz-10THz, which is a frequency band much higher than 5G. According to the communication principle, the higher the frequency, the shorter the transmission wavelength and the larger the bandwidth range, and the greater the data transmission volume of the communication system within a certain period of time. With the increase in the number of users and smart devices, the limited spectrum bandwidth needs to serve more terminals, which will result in a serious decline in the service quality of each terminal. The feasible way to solve this problem is to develop new communication frequency bands and expand communication bandwidth. From 1G (0.9GHz) to 4G (above 1.8GHZ) for communications, this is the reason why the frequency of wireless electromagnetic waves used continues to increase. In order to achieve the goal of ultra-high-speed communication, 6G mobile communication technology will use the terahertz (THz) frequency band. Compared with 5G, terahertz waves will increase network speed by more than 100 times.
  The problem is that although the terahertz frequency band has abundant resources and large system capacity, mobile communication systems using high-frequency carriers must face severe challenges in improving coverage and reducing interference. When the frequency of the signal exceeds 10 GHz, the main mode of propagation is no longer diffraction. For non-line-of-sight propagation links, reflection and scattering are the main signal propagation methods. Moreover, the higher the frequency, the greater the propagation loss, the closer the coverage distance, and the weaker the diffraction ability. These factors will greatly increase the difficulty of signal coverage.
  To solve this problem, 6G mobile communications will use spatial multiplexing technology. Spatial multiplexing technology is also known as MIMO, which means that in order to greatly increase the channel capacity, multiple antennas are used at both the transmitting end and the receiving end to form an antenna system with multiple channels between receiving and sending. An obvious feature of the MIMO system is that it has extremely high spectrum utilization efficiency. On the basis of making full use of existing spectrum resources, it uses space resources to obtain gains in reliability and effectiveness, without occupying additional bandwidth and consuming additional power. In the case of increasing the channel capacity, the price is to increase the complexity of the sender and receiver. It is reported that the 6G mobile communication base station can access thousands of wireless external connections at the same time, and its capacity will reach 1000 times that of 5G. In addition, the multi-antenna array constructed by MIMO technology will concentrate most of the emitted energy in a very narrow spatial range, that is, the more the number of antennas, the narrower the width of the transmitted beam, and the smaller the interference between each user terminal and different waveforms. Finally, the use of beamforming technology (that is, the management and control of the beam through a complex algorithm) can focus the signal coverage.
  The competition has begun
  In the future, 6G technology will bring many changes. In remote areas such as mountains and oceans, traditional wireless access networks are difficult to provide effective coverage. However, ship-borne base stations, drone platforms, low-altitude platforms, high-altitude platforms, satellites, etc. can be used to coordinate supplementary coverage and provide supplementary data services. Solve the data gap caused by the terrestrial cellular wireless network. Specifically, in the event of a natural disaster or war, the original communication infrastructure is destroyed, and emergency communication vehicles cannot function, 6G technology can build emergency response through infrastructure such as drones, ground gateways, and ground base stations. Communication ability. Among them, through the drone equipped with a virtual base station and a self-configuring multi-hop communication protocol, collaborative communication between multiple drones can be realized. In addition to the wireless access function, the drone can also mount sensing equipment and cameras for timely access Field data. In marine communication, traditional marine communication methods are mainly divided into shore-based communications based on cellular networks, communications based on marine satellite systems, and communications based on medium and high frequency. The three are low in integration, poor interoperability, and mostly focus on communication resources. The performance gains brought by computing and processing resources are not fully exploited. And 6G can be based on the integrated collaborative networking of shore-based, water and airspace, and through flexible on-demand scheduling of communication and computing resources, it can effectively support various marine services.

A conceptual diagram of the 6G system for building the Internet based on satellites.

  At the same time, 6G will provide an extreme transmission rate of 1T, and the average user experience rate will reach 10G. Combined with technologies such as augmented/virtual reality and holographic ultra-high-definition video, 3D holographic images of people in different places can be transmitted to the same location. , Enabling users to communicate as if sitting face to face. In the 6G network, precision medicine will play an important role in human major disease risk prediction, early screening, targeted therapy, etc., and realize the transformation of medical and health services from “treatment-oriented” to “prevention-oriented”. In the 6G era, education can not only realize real-time interactive teaching by multiple people at a distance, but also realize one-to-one intelligent teaching in accordance with their aptitude.
  6G is also significant for building a smart society. In the future, the operation of intelligent unmanned equipment such as industrial equipment control, abnormal monitoring and alarm, and robotic arm control will require extremely low latency and ultra-high reliable wireless communication capabilities. Take unmanned vehicles as an example. In the future, unmanned vehicles will be equipped with many sensors, including cameras, laser scanners, etc. The relevant algorithms must quickly fuse data from multiple sources to determine information about surrounding people, animals or buildings. In order to quickly control the vehicle and avoid collision or personal injury, the ultra-high reliability and extremely low-latency wireless network built with 6G technology is essential.
  Based on the huge potential of 6G, relevant countries have already begun to deploy 6G in advance when 5G first emerged. On March 19, 2019, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of the United States decided to open up the “THz” spectrum for future 6G network services for innovators to carry out 6G technology trials. On November 3 of the same year, China announced the establishment of a national 6G technology research and development promotion working group and an overall expert group, marking the official launch of China’s 6G technology research and development work. In January 2020, Japan organized a large number of relevant personnel to convene a 6G research meeting to strictly confirm the cost budget and performance targets of 6G. In April, Japan announced its 6G strategic plan. According to the plan, Japan will use 6G technology in 2030. And South Korea’s Samsung Electronics also released the “Next Generation Hyperlink Experience” 6G white paper in July this year, which covers Samsung’s technology research and development, social trend analysis, new services, candidate technologies and expected standardization timetables. The white paper system elaborated Samsung’s vision of the 6G era, which is to “bring the’next-generation hyperlink experience’ into every corner of life.”
  The United States has high hopes for 6G, hoping to get rid of the situation of lagging behind China in the 5G field. The U.S. believes that the large-scale surface infrastructure capabilities required for 5G are not a strong point of the U.S., while 6G is characterized by satellite-based Internet formation. Most of the infrastructure work is done in space, mainly satellite launch and deployment. The status of a powerful country coincides. In addition, SpaceX’s “Starlink” plan also provides additional confidence for the United States to directly transition to 6G. According to the plan approved by the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on April 26 this year, the “Starlink” plan will deploy 4,409 and 7,518 satellites on orbital planes at altitudes of 550 kilometers and 340 kilometers, for a total of 11,927 satellites. Musk said that SpaceX plans to accelerate the deployment of “Starlink” and its production and launch speed will increase from 1,000 satellites to 2,000 satellites per year. If SpaceX can stick to this plan, the number of “Starlink” satellites will exceed the sum of other satellites in orbit within two years.