Diabetes is a common clinical endocrine disease and a chronic disease that seriously threatens human health. It is a metabolic syndrome characterized by chronic hyperglycemia caused by a variety of causes. With the continuous improvement of people’s living standards and changes in dietary structure, the incidence of diabetes in my country continues to increase because people’s living standards continue to rise and the dietary structure changes. At present, medical-level technology has not yet completely cured diabetes. Therefore, for some obese, elderly or mild patients, diet care is the most important nursing method. It can often determine the overall treatment effect and prevent and delay complications Occurs and plays an important role in maintaining the health of patients. So when people suffer from this disease, they must pay special attention to their diet.
The dangers of diabetes
(1) Acute complications
The hazards of diabetes also include acute complications and co-infection. This disease has a high incidence and can directly threaten the lives of patients. Common infections include tuberculosis and respiratory infections, urinary system infections and skin infections. In addition, patients with severe hyperglycemia can cause ketoacidosis, which can lead to death in severe cases.
(2) The harm of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications are the most deadly complication of diabetes. Mainly manifested in coronary artery, aorta, cerebral atherosclerosis, capillary basement membrane thickening and extensive small blood vessel endothelial proliferation of microvascular diabetic disease. These lesions may greatly reduce people’s health and work ability, and cause disability in severe cases. Although diabetes does not cause sudden death like heart disease, it can also cause death. In diabetic patients, the vasoconstriction and expansion are not coordinated, and the deposition of lipids on the vascular wall will cause hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, leading to an exponential increase in the mortality of diabetic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases.
(3) The harm of kidneys
Due to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, the abnormally elevated glomerular microcirculation filtration pressure will promote the occurrence of diabetic nephropathy. In the early stage, it often manifests as edema and proteinuria. In the late stage of kidney disease, dialysis is required. Patients on dialysis cannot live like normal people. In severe cases, death may occur.
(4) Physical pain
Once a patient is diagnosed with diabetes, diabetes will give the patient mental and physical pain. At this time, they need to strictly control their diet. At the same time, the patient must exercise regularly and maintain a regular life. Travel and entertainment will be restricted, and regular injections and medicine are required.
Essentials of Diabetes Diet Care
(1) Timing and quantitative
Diet care is the cornerstone of the treatment of diabetes. A reasonable diet for diabetic patients can reduce the body’s demand for insulin. Diet care is conducive to the control of blood sugar levels. For diabetic patients, it is necessary to maintain timing and ration. The patient must maintain the most basic three meals. According to a certain ratio, the patient’s blood sugar level can be kept stable. It is recommended that patients increase the number of meals and eat smaller meals, but the interval between two meals should be more than four hours. In addition, diabetic patients will be injected with insulin, which may cause hypoglycemia. It is recommended to put a piece of sugar on the body in case of emergency.
(2) Light diet
Diabetes patients must have less oil and less salt in their diet, and the diet should be as light as possible. Excessive salt intake can cause high blood pressure. The cooking method is mainly steaming and boiling, and the oil intake should be less than 20 grams per day. Do not eat foods with high sugar content. Many patients will blindly control their diet, resulting in poor nutrient intake. Therefore, patients must establish correct concepts and adhere to diet therapy for a long time in order to control the development of the disease. Diabetics usually try to participate in banquets as little as possible and try to eat at home as much as possible.
(3) The needs of various nutrients
Vegetables: Fresh vegetables contain a lot of fiber, vitamins and minerals. Eating more is good for the body. It is recommended that patients eat more than 1 catty of fresh vegetables a day. Vegetables with carbohydrate content between 3% and 7% should be appropriately restricted. Carbon water Do not limit the intake of vegetables with a compound content of less than 3%.
Protein: It is an indispensable substance in the human body and plays an important role in the human body. It mainly includes two kinds of animal protein and plant protein. The amino acid pattern in animal protein is similar to that in the human body, and can reach a high utilization rate in the human body. Also known as high-quality protein, this high-quality protein accounts for 40% to 50% of the human body, and it is recommended to eat more.
Carbohydrates: At present, there is no need to over-limit the intake of carbohydrates in clinical practice. The daily intake of carbohydrates in the human body should account for 50% to 55% of the total human body. Therefore, patients should consume more carbohydrates appropriately to improve the body’s glucose tolerance. .
Fat: Fat generally accounts for 20% to 25% of the body’s total energy, including nuts and cooking oil. It is recommended to eat more chicken, beef, fish, etc., and eat less pork with high fat content. It is best to use vegetable oils for cooking for people with diabetes, such as peanut oil and soybean oil. Animal oil is forbidden.
Dietary fiber: Diabetic patients should take in more plant fiber, which can reduce the blood sugar level and fasting blood sugar level of the patient after meals and reduce hunger. Therefore, they should eat more high-fiber foods such as coarse grains.
(4) Cooking method
The correct cooking method not only increases the flavor of the food, but also does not destroy the nutrition of the food. If the cooking method is not correct, it may cause adverse effects on the body. For diabetics, steaming, boiling, stewing, cold dressing, and braising are the most suitable cooking methods.
Diabetes occurs mostly due to changes in the patient’s diet. Poor eating habits and lifestyles are the causes of diabetes. Among them, dietary factors are the most important factor, so diet care is very important for diabetic patients. In addition, the patient’s family should also provide psychological care in time to avoid the patient’s unhealthy psychology such as inferiority, depression, and low self-esteem. Medical staff should remind patients to pay more attention to diet, understand what can be eaten and what cannot be eaten, match them reasonably, develop healthy living habits, and effectively control the condition.