Galapagos Islands! Where the dream started
In ancient Greece, element theory and atom theory were popular, and the universe was like an eternal crystal ball, everything revolving precisely in accordance with the laws of physics. But the Epicurean school is still very puzzled. Why simple water and fire can produce lions and oak trees through thousands of accidental collisions. That is to say, why simple physical laws cannot directly explain complex biological organisms. On the contrary, the Stoics do not recognize accident. They believe that lions and oak trees can appear, indicating that the will of God must be involved. In the Renaissance, the Stoic school evolved into natural theology, acknowledging that God created everything, but it did not recognize that God created everything specifically for humans. This explains the things that many religious radicalism creation theories can’t explain. For example, why did God create lions but let them eat people?
At the beginning of the 19th century, Lamarck proposed the original version of the evolutionary theory, discarding creationism. He was originally a researcher of geology, and he could discover from the stratum that the earth is not an eternal existence, but has a long history of development. Its environmental conditions are constantly changing, so organisms must constantly adapt to the environment, such as various animals. Lamarck’s point of view today seems to have many bugs, such as being stuck in a dead end of thinking, but at that time he paved the way for Darwin.
Thirty years later, the Galapagos Islands finally ushered in Darwin. Yes, this archipelago also appeared in the cartoon. Darwin put forward a revolutionary insight, that is, species comes from gradual evolution, it is natural selection that caused the species to become what it is now, and that humans originate from a long-haired four-legged animal. Although Darwin did not pay attention to Mendel’s research all his life, so he could not understand how evolution happened at the micro level, but his brilliant thinking has not been completely overthrown until now.
The Galapagos Islands are located in the Pacific Ocean west of the South American continent. They have diverse climates and special geomorphology. There are many unusual animal species. They are called “unique living biological evolution museums and showrooms.”
The Stoics and Epicureans were both philosophical schools in the ancient Greek period, and they established two distinct natural science systems.
The order of evolution is not the order of natural history
In the animation, Party B who communicated with the two “Party A representatives” Ueda and Shimoda obviously also have elementalism in their bodies, and they have their own masterpieces. Grandpa Tsuchiya’s masterpiece is a horse, Kimura’s masterpiece is a cow, and Mizushima’s masterpiece is a reference to the horse and the creation of a snake… and the snake and the Kanemori bird have an arms race.
Indeed, these large creatures were the first to be known and even used. One source of biology is natural history. People first recognize and observe the animals closest to humans and most visible to the naked eye. Only with a microscope can you see things that you can’t normally see, such as the cells of microorganisms and large animals, and biological researchers can unlock the next map-cell biology.
The naturalist Linnaeus pioneered an artificial classification system and a supporting double-name system, which have become two traditions in biology today. But relying on this kind of artificial classification will always be biased, let alone the order of species evolution. For example, Mr. Kimura’s cows can be seen to be cloven-hoofed animals by naked eyes, and can be put into the cloven-toed order with various pigs, sheep, deer and camels. But later biologists discovered that whales also belong to the big family of Artiodactyla, which evolved from primitive artiodactyls on land that ran into the water. And at that time, the closest relatives of primitive cetaceans were the ancestors of hippos, pigs and camels had not yet evolved, and whales were obviously veterans in the Artiodactyla. Therefore, cetaceans are abolished in some places and the term “whale artiodactyla” is adopted.
It can be seen that the timeline of biological evolution does not change with the mind of human beings, nor does it follow the mood of the so-called “creator”. Fortunately, paleontology has now become a mature subject, and molecular biology has also been introduced into the study of biological evolution, which has made the branches of the evolutionary tree more clear.
The secret is Miss Huo (Yamaguchi)?
After Darwin and his successors perfected the theory of evolution, there are still many people who do not believe that the formation of life can be completed without the participation of God, and even use natural selection itself as evidence that can prove the existence of the will of God. This is the creation theory. An evolutionary version of intelligent design theory.
As early as thousands of years ago, there were other primitive theories that explored the boundary between life and non-life. For example, many ancients put forward the view of vitality, saying that the heaven and the earth are full of “vitality” that injects life into the inorganic body. Under this premise, some people say that the rot grass is a firefly, and some say that the seeds reincarnate. Now it seems that they are full of fantasy (mysterious) thoughts (belief).
And intelligent design theorists think that I don’t believe in vitality either. It obviously doesn’t conform to the theory of evolution, but just like the proposition of physicists who is the first driving force, since you Darwin said, “All life must have “A common origin”, then the qualitative change of life from inanimate birth does not require a divine will to participate?
This problem has not been fully explained for many years. It was not until 1951 that the Soviet chemist Belosov discovered that the mixture of certain chemical substances would have an oscillating reaction, changing from colorless to colored, and then back to colorless, showing a periodic order. In the second year in England, the mathematician Turing wrote some simple equations to simulate some complex patterns in nature, such as fish markings, fern curls, cows black and white flowers, etc., which are called Turing patterns. , Pointed out that organic order can be spontaneously generated in disorder, and then complex structure can be formed without the existence of God. This is the physical cornerstone on which life is born.
If the theory of common origin is established, then in theory all living things today should originate from an original single cell that can replicate itself-the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), which comes from the crater on the seabed, and this There also happens to be a character called Huokou in the ministry.
Regarding the origin of life, scientists believe that life first formed in the hot seawater erupting from seafloor cracks. At that time, the earth was covered by the ocean, and ultraviolet rays eliminated the possibility of life forming on the sea surface, but on the deep seabed, these hot springs carried enough heat, inorganic salts and simple compounds, and continuously tried to synthesize and decompose in the tiny gaps of the rocks. , Relying on the chemical gradient inside and outside the pore to obtain the energy for the decomposition. These pores are equivalent to the original cells, and then those compounds leave the pores and are encapsulated by lipids to form intact cells that can survive independently.
So, is the virus that we are familiar with count as life?