Science rumors

It is found that the nodules should be removed immediately, otherwise it will become cancerous
Rumor: The nodules must be removed immediately after they are found, and cannot wait, otherwise they will definitely become cancerous in the future.

Truth: A nodule, generally speaking, refers to a relatively small, non-feeling or painful mass. Nodules may be seen and felt on the neck, underarms, breasts, and subcutaneous parts of the body. However, there are some nodules that grow in “secret corners” and are not easy to be found. For example, nodules on the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and other organs can only be discovered with the help of imaging examinations.

For the nodules, don’t be overly nervous, more than 90% of the nodules are benign. Benign nodules generally do not need to be treated, and some nodules are benign throughout their lives, such as scarred nodules (a nodule formed in the process of repair after the human body has been traumatized, and it will remain unchanged throughout the life). However, once a nodule is found, it needs to be observed at any time and go to the hospital to determine its nature and classification.

People can feel the changes in the size and hardness of the nodules that can be felt like breast nodules. Nodules that grow on the limbs and body surface should be observed and touched at any time. Pulmonary nodules require professional examination. If you are not sure whether it is a nodule, it is recommended to go to the hospital for treatment.

It is necessary to pay special attention to “undifferentiated removal” of nodules, because the removal of nodules will cause certain damage to the local tissues of the affected area. For example, breast nodules, breast ducts may be destroyed after removal; removal of lung nodules may require removal of part of the lung lobes, which affects lung function. In short, whether or not to remove the nodule, when to remove the nodule, requires a doctor to make a decision based on the situation.

This winter is the coldest winter in 60 years
Rumor: This winter is the coldest winter in 60 years, and there will be “the worst snowfall.” All of this has something to do with La Nina.

The truth: during the National Day holiday this year, affected by strong cold air, the lowest temperatures in Northeast my country and North China have fallen below the freezing point. Many scenic spots in Henan, Sichuan, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Heilongjiang and other places “unlocked” the winter scene mode early. As the temperature drops, many news about “the coldest winter in 60 years” and “all of which are related to La Niña” circulated on Weibo, WeChat Moments, and forums.

In fact, in the first ten days of October, it is normal for the temperature to drop to freezing point and even snow in northern my country, especially Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. As a highly professional work, climate prediction needs to be based on a large amount of climate observation data, supported by high-resolution numerical prediction products, and then through a series of statistical analysis, before we can cautiously draw a scientific conclusion.

Experts from the China Meteorological Administration believe that the cooling process is not necessarily related to La Niña. The La Niña phenomenon refers to the sea surface temperature of the central and eastern Pacific Ocean at the equator, which is colder than usual in the same period of the year. Generally speaking, in the winter during the peak of most La Niña events, the cold air activities affecting my country are more frequent than in previous years, and the temperature in the central and eastern regions of my country is more likely to be lower than the same period in previous years.

In addition, based on the La Niña phenomenon alone, it cannot be determined that the winter will definitely be colder, because the impact of each La Niña event is different, and it is not that the average temperature in my country in the winter of every La Niña year is low. Moreover, in the context of global warming, the factors that affect my country’s winter climate are more complex. The melting of Arctic sea ice and changes in snow cover in Europe and Asia will all affect the East Asian winter monsoon circulation, which in turn affects my country’s winter climate.

Compound Banlangen can effectively resist the new coronavirus
Rumor: The compound Banlangen granules have definite anti-coronavirus efficacy, so please buy them as soon as possible.

The truth: On October 13, the team of Academician Zhong Nanshan mentioned in a seminar that they found that the compound Banlangen Granules and Kouyanqing Granules showed different levels of in vitro inhibitory effects in their in vitro anti-coronavirus efficacy screening.

After relevant media reports, Banlangen quickly became popular, and Banlangen sold on pharmacies and e-commerce platforms were out of stock. On the evening of the 18th, the relevant pharmaceutical company issued a clarification notice, stating that the relevant conclusions involved in the relevant media reports are only the results of the in vitro screening of anti-new crown virus against the compound Banlangen granules, and further related work on the product is still needed. Certain uncertainty.

Academician Zhong Nanshan himself also gave a response: “Compound Banlangen, not Banlangen, has anti-coronavirus effects in the laboratory, which is far from being effective in the body… I have taken this sentence out of context, and even said it is Banlangen. It is a kind of distortion, and relevant departments have come out to clarify.”

Before a drug can be used in clinical treatment, it must go through three stages: in vitro test, animal test and clinical test. The results made by the laboratory on cells in vitro are still a long way from being clinically effective.

For example, 75% alcohol can kill the virus, but it can only be used for external disinfection, not oral administration. Shuanghuanglian, which was sold out before, is only effective in vitro, and there is no evidence of clinical treatment effectiveness.

Even if the drug is already on the market, and in vitro tests prove that it has an inhibitory effect on the virus, clinical trials cannot be omitted. Even if the drug only adds a new indication, it needs to pass a certain sample size of clinical trials to prove its safety and effectiveness before it can be officially used on patients.

Until the Phase III clinical trials are completed, no one can say whether the compound Banlangen is effective. There is no need to follow the trend to buy, and it is not recommended to take drugs as a way to prevent diseases, because taking drugs indiscriminately may also cause side effects.

Nine family members died of aflatoxin poisoning after eating homemade “sour soup”
Rumor: A family of nine people in Jidong County, Heilongjiang Province, died after eating homemade “sour soup”. The aflatoxin in the food exceeded the standard, which was aflatoxin poisoning.

The truth: “Sour Tangzi” poisoning is caused by the high concentration of orychotic acid produced by Pseudomonas coconut poisoning, and is not caused by excessive aflatoxin.

Aflatoxin is a toxin produced by the “Aspergillus flavus” mold. It is one of the strongest carcinogens known to man. But in this incident, even if the aflatoxin in the food exceeds the standard, it is difficult to reach the lethal dose. Aflatoxin has a bitter taste, and it is difficult not to be noticed when it reaches a lethal amount that causes acute poisoning. Deaths due to aflatoxin are very rare, and the mortality rate is not so high.

Poisoning caused by rice yeast acid is not uncommon. The longest incubation period of poisoning is 3 days, most of which are from half a day to one day. The patient has only mild symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, and general weakness in the initial stage, and then may develop jaundice, hepatomegaly, subcutaneous hemorrhage, hematemesis, hematuria, oliguria, unconsciousness, restlessness, convulsions, convulsions, shock Symptoms such as coma. At present, there is no specific detoxification drug for serotonin, and patients generally do not have a fever, and the mortality rate of severe patients is very high.

There are three main categories of foods that are easily contaminated and cause acidosis: fermented cereal products (fermented corn noodles, glutinous corn glutinous rice balls, corn starch, fermented glutinous millet, glutinous rice cakes, glutinous rice cakes, vinegar jelly, etc.); potato products ( Potato vermicelli, sweet potato noodles, yam starch, etc.); spoiled fungus, white fungus, etc.

To effectively prevent rice yeast acidosis, we must first master the correct preparation method. Do not use moldy corn and other raw materials to prepare fermented rice noodle products; change the water frequently when soaking the cereals, keep it clean and have no peculiar smell; dry or dry into powder in time after refining; the storage environment should be ventilated and moisture-proof, and do not directly touch the soil. Prevent contamination. Secondly, it is forbidden to sell and eat fresh white fungus. To ensure the quality of the cultured white fungus, the fresh white fungus should be dried in time or exposed to sufficient ultraviolet rays. Third, correctly distinguish the quality of white fungus. After the dried white fungus is soaked in water, the flower shape is complete and large, and the fungus pieces are white or slightly yellow, with good elasticity and no peculiar smell. Deteriorating white fungus is not shaped, sticky, and inelastic, and the fungus pieces are dark yellow to yellowish brown with peculiar smell. The made white fungus should be rinsed thoroughly and the base of the white fungus should be removed.

Pain is not a disease, just endure it
Rumor: Pain is a symptom or an accessory to a certain disease, and it will subside with the recovery of the disease, so there is no need to deliberately treat it, forbearance will pass.

Truth: It is the basic right of patients to eliminate pain, and don’t bear it when facing pain. In reality, the most common misunderstanding in the face of pain is to tolerate it, and treat it only when it is unbearable. Studies have shown that over 70% of patients with pain “tolerate” do not seek medical attention, and only 28% of patients seek medical attention within 1 to 10 days of the first pain.

Pain can be divided into acute pain and chronic pain. Acute pain is pain that occurs suddenly and has a short duration in the near future, most of which are related to surgery, trauma, tissue damage or certain disease states; chronic pain lasts for a long time and is often a continuation of acute pain. Osteoarthritis, neck pain, low back pain, headache, cancer pain, etc. are all common chronic pains that seriously affect people’s quality of life. The aging of the population, poor lifestyle and behavior habits, and chronic diseases are factors that cause painful diseases to continue to be serious.

Pain can cause a series of pathological and physiological changes, affect the patient’s emotional and mental health, cause sleep disorders, anxiety, and irritability, and at the same time decrease the degree of coordination with various treatments. Continuous pain stimulation can cause central sensitization, leading to a decrease in the neuron’s sensory threshold for pain stimulation, increasing the intensity and duration of pain, and also greatly increasing the difficulty of pain treatment. Therefore, you should see a doctor in time when you encounter pain.

Turn on the airplane mode, the phone will charge very fast
Rumor: Turning on the phone’s airplane mode can greatly increase the charging speed.

Truth: The charging time depends on the difference between the charging speed and the power consumption speed. Under the premise of a certain charging speed, turning on the airplane mode will reduce the power consumption of the mobile phone. It can indeed increase the charging speed to a certain extent, but it is impossible to achieve a “large scale” improve”.

Someone has done experiments to charge two mobile phones in different modes at the same time. The mobile phone No. 1 turns on the flight mode, the remaining battery is 27%, and it is charged at 15:03, and the battery is 67% by 16:09. It takes 1 hour and 6 minutes, and a total of 40% of the battery is stored; the mobile phone No. 2 is not turned on In flight mode, the remaining power is 34%, and at 16:09, the power is 64%. For the same time, 30% of the power is stored.

Through the above experiments, it can be found that the charging speed of the mobile phone in the airplane mode will be faster than normal. However, the claims on the Internet as “double faster” or “significantly improved” have not been confirmed. According to the comparison of the power stored in the No. 1 and No. 2 mobile phones, the No. 1 mobile phone has 10% more power than the No. 2 mobile phone, and the charging speed is about 33% faster than that of the No. 2 mobile phone. This is just a preliminary experiment. Different mobile phones will have different differences, but they have not reached 2 times.

The charging speed of mobile phones depends largely on the output power of the charger, the protocol of the power management chip and the characteristics of the battery. From the power point of view, whether it is searching for base station signals or WiFi, GPS, or Bluetooth, the power consumption of these wireless modules is very small, which may add up to less than 1 watt. Even if the flight mode is turned on and the communication, WiFi, GPS, and Bluetooth modules of the mobile phone are turned off, the charging time that can be saved will not exceed 15%. Nowadays, many mobile phones already support the fast charging function, and the influence of the flight mode is even less obvious. Instead of turning on the airplane mode, it is better to use less or no mobile phone when charging, because the mobile phone APP and the “long-term wake-up state of the screen” are the big power consumers.

You must not exercise if you have rheumatoid arthritis
Rumor: If you get rheumatoid arthritis, you can never exercise anymore.

The truth: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic and systemic autoimmune disease with symmetry and polyarthritis as the main manifestations. As the disease progresses, the patient’s joints will be damaged or even deformed, and swelling and pain will occur during activities.

In patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the acute phase, the joints are obviously swollen and painful, accompanied by mild edema of the tissues around the joints, local temperature increases, and tenderness. At this time, the patient’s joint movement is limited or completely unable to move. In the acute phase, patients should stay in bed, take medications on time, limit swollen and painful joint activities, and avoid weight bearing, excessive activity, and cold stimulation. Avoid pressure on swollen and painful joints during rest, so as not to aggravate joint swelling and pain.

After the acute phase, patients should undergo functional recovery training, which mainly includes joint and muscle training. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis can perform finger joint training, which mainly includes finger extension and flexion movements. When training, start from the distal interphalangeal joints, to the proximal interphalangeal joints, and then to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Extend and flex as much as possible. It can be done with a single finger or with multiple fingers. Be careful not to over-activate during activities, and do not use sudden force to prevent damage to the joints. In addition to joint training, patients can also perform some aerobic exercises. Aerobic exercise can not only relax the muscles and relieve the spasm of the tissues around the joints, but also facilitate blood circulation and promote the dissipation of inflammation.

Appropriate activities can greatly promote the functional recovery of patients with rheumatoid arthritis in remission. It can also improve the self-care ability of patients and help them build confidence. Rehabilitation training requires long-term persistence, and therefore requires the cooperation and supervision of the patient’s family members. Only by insisting on early functional exercise can reduce the damage to the joints caused by the disease and improve the quality of life.