Colosseum in ancient Rome

  Among the historic buildings of ancient Rome, nothing inspires infinite reverie and evokes cruel memories more than the Colosseum. These large and small arenas were once widely distributed in the Roman Empire. They were not only places of ancient Roman culture and entertainment, but also a stage for the political struggle of the empire.
  The arena is also known as the amphitheater, or the Colosseum. The original word is of Greek origin and means “theatre surrounded by seats”. Seen from above, it is a circular or oval free-standing building with an arena in the center and auditoriums around it. It is an architectural form unique to ancient Rome and is said to have originated in Etruria, Italy. Among the Etruscan peoples there is a form of entertainment such as sword fighting or beast fighting. Later, this entertainment was accepted by the Romans. The original arenas were temporary wooden structures, while the earliest surviving permanent arena was built in 80 BC in Pompeii and could accommodate 20,000 spectators.
  In the history of ancient Rome, competitive entertainment has always been one of the means by which politicians relied on to bribe the people, win over people, and establish their own public image and prestige. In 45 BC, in order to celebrate the victory of the two sons of Pompey at the Battle of Menda, Caesar, the Roman consul, donated money to build a wooden arena for the Roman civilians to watch the game for free, which won the goodwill of the citizens. His series of policies favoring the commoners made him hated by the nobles, and his lifelong dictatorial ambitions eventually led to his assassination. However, the political method of “bread and arena” was still used by successive Roman rulers.
  During the imperial era, the arena was once a site of religious persecution. In the age of traditional religions in ancient Rome, those devout Christians who refused to renounce their faith and became unfortunate religious martyrs were sentenced to death in public in the arena. In the grand ancient Roman religious festival, in the frenzied roar of the audience, these prisoners were either wrapped in animal skins and thrown at the hungry beasts, or burned to death in public at the stake. Their burned bodies lit up the Roman night sky like torches for days. These pioneers of Christianity searched and pursued in the pagan world for their own beliefs, and spread the seeds of Christian civilization. Their perseverance finally won people’s sympathy, won the recognition of the Roman upper class, and finally won a huge empire. After numerous ups and downs of religious struggles, Christianity, a religion that originated in Palestine and was once regarded as a heresy, was finally tolerated and recognized by the Roman emperor. In AD 313, Emperor Constantine’s decree of toleration recognized the legal status of Christianity in the empire, and Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the state religion. Christianity won the final victory in the Roman Empire.
  The most famous arena in the history of ancient Rome is the Flavian Amphitheatre. This majestic and imposing oval marble building still stands in the ancient city of Rome. It is located in the south of Piazza Venezia in the center of Rome, the capital of Italy. Although it has experienced vicissitudes and is incomplete, it will forever record the pride of ancient Rome and the glory of the empire.
  The Flavian Amphitheater was built in AD 72 and completed in AD 80. It lasted for 9 years and was the largest and most complex arena in the history of Rome. Its appearance is oval, with a long diameter of 188 meters and a short diameter of 156 meters. The outer wall is 48.5 meters high, like a fortress. The entire building covers an area of ​​20,000 square meters. The interior is a concrete structure, and the exterior is made of a light yellow stone produced locally. It can accommodate at least 50,000 spectators. It can be used for human and animal performances, and can also be used to simulate land, naval battle. The building’s substructure alone is 40 feet deep, including an intricate system of passageways and cages. Its outer wall is divided into four layers, of which the first, second and third layers have semi-embedded circular pilasters. and ornately carved Corinthian columns. The fourth floor consists of square columns and windows.
  This oval-shaped open-air arena is the crystallization of the dream and painstaking efforts of two generations of heads of the ancient Roman Empire. It was conceived, designed and started by Vespasian, the founding head of the Flavian Dynasty. It was completed during the reign of his son Titus. During the reign of Domitian, the third head of state, a grandstand on the top floor was added. It is said that 40,000 slaves were used to build the building, and the project was financed from loot looted in a recent war against Jerusalem.
  Just like the ancient Roman statesmen, Vespasian built the arena with a political purpose. This sprawling public entertainment complex was built after the conversion of a lavish private garden of the former tyrant Nero, and its political message is clear – Vespasian was a good emperor who cared about the welfare of his people. And when Titus, the young ruler, came to the throne, he made many enemies. At this time, a rare disaster in history occurred: Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79, and the famous ancient city of Pompeii was instantly engulfed by hot magma and volcanic ash; This series of natural and man-made disasters caused rumors to spread, and people said that this was a sign of heaven, and the head of state fell out of favor with the gods. The political enemies of the Führer even took this opportunity to attack the Führer and tarnish his reputation. In order to fight back against his opponents and maintain his public image, Titus not only devoted himself to the reconstruction and restoration of the city of Rome, but also accelerated the construction of this giant arena as a gift to the citizens of Rome.
  For this day to come, not only were countless slaves concentrated on construction sites, but those with strong physique were selected into athletic schools, joined the ranks of gladiators, and were trained as tools for people’s amusement. When that day finally came, a hundred-day opening ceremony was held. 3,000 gladiators, consisting of slaves, prisoners of war, criminals and Christians, either killed each other, or fought with wild beasts, betting their lives, either fighting to death, or repeatedly winning, winning the cheers of the audience, Applaud, worship, and even gain the most precious freedom for it. They swayed the most brilliant moments in their lives on the arena. On the opening day, hundreds of gladiators were killed, and 5,000 exotic beasts from all over the empire were slaughtered. However, on this day, a remarkable event occurred in the history of Roman gladiatorial fighting: two famous gladiators in Roman history, Verus and Brescus, performed well in the game of the day. Tus granted the wooden sword that symbolized freedom and the palm leaf that symbolized victory, and both obtained the freedom they had longed for.
  This hundred-day rodeo earned Titus a high reputation. He died of a serious illness six months after the inauguration of the Colosseum, making him one of the most popular emperors in Roman history.
  Time flies, the past is like smoke. The Colosseum of ancient Rome has experienced the vicissitudes of two thousand years of history and witnessed countless thrilling scenes. Today, when we look up at the magnificent ancient building of the Flavi Amphitheater, we can still hear the clanging sound of swords and the enthusiastic shouts of the audience, and smell the pungent smell of blood. It is a silent history that has witnessed the ruthlessness of political struggle, the cruelty of slavery, the tragic and solemn gladiators, the suffering of Christians, and the madness of religious persecution. And the culture it represents fully demonstrates the ancient Romans’ national character of bravery, aggressiveness, advocating force and conquest.