Pharaoh’s Pyramid The
Pyramid is the tomb of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs. It is composed of the Giza Pyramids located in the suburbs of Cairo today. It stands between the heavens and the earth, majestic and tall, and can be called a miracle of human history. When orthodox Egyptology talks about this world-famous pyramid group, it believes that it is the pyramid of the three generations of Pharaohs of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaura in the Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt, and it is a peak of ancient stone building.
The establishment of the mausoleum form of the pyramid has gone through a long evolutionary process. The three pyramids on the Giza Plateau are the ones that actually produce the shape of the tapered pyramid. The tallest one is the pyramid built by Pharaoh Khufu, which was built between 2551 and 2528 BC. Many data of this Pyramid of Khufu are amazing. The angle between the slope and the bottom of the tower is 52°. Each side of the base is about 230 meters long, and the four sides are facing due north, due south, due east and due west respectively. , the error is less than 1°. The accuracy of the position determination is unimaginable. The bottom area of the tower is 52,900 square meters, and the tower body costs 2.3 million pieces of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons. It was the famous architect Hermionnu who supervised the construction of this “eternal residence”. The tower was originally 146.5 meters high. After thousands of years of weathering, it is now 136.5 meters high. The interior of the tower has a passage extending to the outside of the tower. It is said that the passage is designed so that the soul of the pharaoh can enter and exit freely after death.
Pharaoh Khafre is the owner of the second pyramid. He was the younger of Khufu’s sons and ascended the throne after the sudden death of his brother. Khafre wanted to build a pyramid to achieve the same status as his father, so he tried to build a larger-scale pyramid. He chose the pyramid to be located at a higher position on the terrain and made the slope of the walls steeper, but in the end it was not possible. can do.
However, the Khafre Pyramid is second only to the Great Pyramid of Khufu in size, and there are still limestone remaining on the top. It is the only building that can still vaguely see the original appearance of the pyramid at that time. It can be inferred from the white brilliance of the pyramid at that time. There are temples and other facilities in front of the tower, and on the east side is the Sphinx, which is said to be built for Pharaoh Khafre.
The third pyramid was built by Pharaoh Menkaura, the grandson of Khufu. This pyramid is located in the southeast of the Great Pyramid and is the smallest one.
The Tibet Autonomous Region, located on the “roof of the world”, is located in southwestern China. This mysterious land has always attracted tourists from all over the world with its unique features and splendid culture. Many tourists will be attracted by a typical Tibetan Buddhist art – thangka after coming to Tibet.
Thangka is a colorful scroll painting drawn or embroidered on cloth, silk or paper, which is rich in Tibetan cultural characteristics. The subject matter of thangka is very wide, there are not only colorful Buddha statues, but also pictures reflecting Tibetan history and ethnic customs, which can be called an encyclopedia of images. Tibetan thangkas are mostly vertical and long banners with no special requirements for size. The composition is rigorous and balanced. Thangka generally uses white cloth as the canvas. After a series of processes such as stretching, gluing, polishing, hooking, and coloring, it is finished with colored satin borders around it, and hardwood painting scrolls at the upper and lower ends. Thangkas are usually enshrined in monasteries, Buddhist halls, monasteries and even the homes of many Tibetan Buddhist believers. The Thangka’s brushes are delicate and delicate, with complete brushwork, bright and clean coloring, gorgeous style, solemn pictures, and full composition. Pigments are precious. Fabric thangkas have embroidery, brocade, kesi and clippings. Embroidered thangkas are embroidered with various colors of silk thread, which are divided into high embroidery and flat embroidery. Gao embroidery, also known as pile embroidery, is only available in Qinghai Ta’er Monastery, and is known as one of the “three musts” arts of Ta’er Monastery. Or cotton, so that the middle is raised, and then embroidered with silk thread, which is very three-dimensional. Most of the Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and Arhats in the paintings are set off and echoed by dark backgrounds, just like exquisite relief sculptures. Flat embroidery is like ordinary Chinese embroidery. It is a flat image, and it can be embroidered with any gods, Buddhas and accompanying landscapes, flowers, terraces, pavilions, gardens, animals, etc. The brocade thangka is made of silk and satin, with various colors of silk threads as the weft, and is made of jacquard. The Kesi Thangka adopts the method of “connecting the warp and breaking the weft” in the Han Dynasty, using various colors of weft to make the image interweave with the warp where necessary, with a three-dimensional visual effect of carving. There is also a Thangka made of pearls and precious stones. For example, in Changzhu Monastery in Shannan, Tibet, there is a pearl Thangka called the resting picture of Guanyin Bodhisattva. It uses 20,000 pearls and pine otoliths. 5 feet, 3 feet wide, very precious.
Most of the contents of thangkas are religious paintings, and there are also a small number of wall charts based on social history, secular life, medicine, astronomy, etc., which can be roughly classified into Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, Venerable Women (Buddha mothers), Arhats, and Tantric Dharma protectors. Twelve categories, including gods, sect patriarchs and historical elites, catechism and canon maps, myths and legends, calendars and medical maps, historical story maps, ancient temple architectural maps, and religious patterns.
Here we mainly introduce the thangkas that represent the female Venerable (Buddha). In the thangkas, there are female venerables with parts of the Buddha. The most common one is Tara, also known as Save Tara, called “Dolma” in Tibetan, and is a unique goddess in Tibetan Buddhism. The legend is that the Avalokitesvara incarnates itself to save the suffering. According to white, green, red, yellow and other colors, there are twenty-one phases. Draw the most with White Tara and Green Tara. From these works we can see the devotion of the painters with a breathless voice.
Spiritual interpretation of megalithic architecture
Pharaoh’s Pyramid The