The chemical embodiment of “one side’s water and soil support one side’s people”
A chemical element is a general term for a class of atoms with the same nuclear charge (the number of protons in the nucleus). According to different content, chemical elements in the human body can be divided into macroelements (content > 0.01%) and trace elements (content < 0.01%). Among them, oxygen (O, 65%), carbon (C, 18%), hydrogen (H, 10%), nitrogen (N, 3%), calcium (Ca, 1.5%), phosphorus (P, 1%), Potassium (K, 0.35%), sulfur (S, 0.25%), sodium (Na, 0.15%), chlorine (Cl, 0.15%), magnesium (Mg, 0.05%), these 11 elements constitute a large number of elements, and the rest are trace elements. Iodine (I), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) are essential for the human body. It participates in the vital activities of the human body and ensures the normal operation of the human body. Too much or too little content will affect the health of the body. Studies have shown that the content of the same chemical element in different parts of the human body is different. For example, iron (Fe) is mainly distributed in the blood, and iodine (I) is mainly distributed in the thyroid gland. In addition, the content of the same chemical element in the human body changes with age, for example, the content of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) gradually decreases. "One side of water and soil nourishes one side of people", due to different soil, geology, climate, hydrology and other conditions, the chemical elements in food and environment are significantly different, so people in different regions have different levels of chemical elements in their bodies. Potassium (K), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) are important electrolytes in the human body. Among them, potassium mainly exists in intracellular fluid, sodium exists in extracellular fluid, and chlorine exists in both intracellular and extracellular fluid. These three elements participate in the regulation together, which can keep the body fluid close to neutral, and determine the amount of water in the tissue. They are also very important for the endocrine system, chlorine is used to form stomach acid, potassium helps the nervous system to communicate messages, and potassium activates various enzymes that are important for muscle contraction. Schematic diagram of macronutrients and essential micronutrients in the human body Pie chart of chemical element content in the human body small element big effect Oxygen (O), carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) are the most basic chemical elements that make up proteins, fats, sugars and other substances in the human body. For example, carbon is the basic skeleton of biological macromolecules. Each monomer (such as amino acid) has a carbon chain composed of several connected carbon atoms as the basic skeleton, and then many monomers form a polymer (such as protein). Proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides (such as starch) are all biological macromolecules. Although fat is not a biological macromolecule, its basic skeleton is also a carbon chain. Knowledge link Body fluid = extracellular fluid + intracellular fluid Extracellular fluid refers to the body fluid that exists outside the cells in the human body. It mainly includes interstitial fluid (abbreviation for interstitial fluid), plasma (liquid part of blood), lymph fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, etc., accounting for 1/3 of the total body fluid. The extracellular fluid in the human body constitutes the liquid environment in which the cells in the body live. This liquid environment is called the internal environment of the human body. Intracellular fluid is the body fluid contained in the body's cells as a whole, mainly including cytoplasmic matrix, nuclear fluid, and cell fluid of the matrix of organelles, accounting for 2/3 of the total body fluid. Extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid together make up the body fluids in the human body. It should be noted that although sweat, urine, digestive juice, tears, etc. come from body fluids, they are only temporarily stored in the body and can directly contact the outside world, so they are not bodily fluids. In the human body, 99% of calcium (Ca) exists in bones and teeth in the form of calcium hydroxyphosphate, and 0.1% in blood. Ionized calcium can promote the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin to coagulate the blood at the wound. Calcium plays an important role in many other physiological processes, for example: in the stretching and stretching of muscles, it can activate ATPase (adenosine triphosphate) to maintain the normal movement of the body; contribute to the transmission and relaxation of nerve stimulation; reduce the permeability of cell membranes Sex, prevent harmful bacteria, viruses or allergens from entering cells; help people reduce fatigue and accelerate physical recovery. composition of body fluids Magnesium (Mg) is also one of the chemical elements necessary for living things. 50% of the magnesium in the human body is deposited in the bones, followed by inside the cells, and only 2% in the blood. Magnesium, like calcium, has neuroprotective effects and is a good sedative. Severe magnesium deficiency can cause brain confusion, loss of direction, hallucinations, and even insanity. Magnesium is the main catalyst for lowering blood cholesterol, and can prevent atherosclerosis, so intake of adequate magnesium can prevent heart disease. Magnesium is also an activator of various enzymes in humans and mammals. Magnesium is required by every cell in the body and plays an important role in protein synthesis, fat and sugar utilization, and hundreds of enzyme systems. Cobalt (Co) element is an important component of vitamin B12. It plays an important role in the metabolism of protein, fat, sugar and the synthesis of hemoglobin, and can dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure. However, excessive cobalt can cause polycythemia, and can also cause gastrointestinal dysfunction, deafness, and myocardial ischemia. Elements exist in every corner of the earth and make up everything in the world. In the process of knowing the elements, we discover the magic of life. More magical powers about elements are waiting for us to continue exploring!