How to take care of diet for patients with kidney disease

  The kidney is one of the main excretory organs of the human body. It not only excretes various metabolites, water, electrolytes and harmful substances in the body, but also maintains the balance of water, electrolyte and pH in the body, regulates human blood pressure, promotes human red blood cell production, and promotes vitamins. D activation and other effects. Once a kidney problem occurs, it will inevitably lead to the retention of metabolic waste, and the retained waste will in turn act on the organs of the body, forming a vicious circle and aggravating the condition. In recent years, the incidence of various kidney diseases has been on the rise, seriously endangering human health. In this regard, the author reminds everyone that in addition to “cure”, kidney disease must be “nourished.”
  Scientific and effective diet care can reduce the burden on the kidneys of patients with kidney disease, thereby maintaining the basic functions of the patients’ kidneys. Especially for patients with renal insufficiency, a reasonable intake of sugar, fat and protein can help alleviate the disease. If the intake is insufficient, the protein in the body will be excessively decomposed, which will show a negative balance of nitrogen, causing the patient to suffer from malnutrition; if the intake is too much, it will lead to excess protein nutrition in the patient’s body, thus showing The positive equilibrium state of nitrogen. The metabolism of these two kinds of nitrogen will cause too much non-protein in the human body, leading to a continuous increase in creatinine or urea nitrogen, thereby aggravating the patient’s condition and presenting different degrees of poisoning. Therefore, the daily diet and care of patients with kidney disease is particularly important.
Acute kidney disease

  Patients with mild nephritis should eat a light diet at the beginning of the onset of the disease, strictly control the intake of salt, not too much meat and protein intake, and can eat fresh vegetables and fruits in moderation. After the patient recovers slightly, protein intake can be increased appropriately. If patients with moderate or severe nephritis have obvious edema, hypertension, low urine output, or increased blood urea nitrogen, they should reduce their protein intake, and the best daily intake of 20-40 grams of protein. It is recommended to consume less than 2 grams of salt or 10 milliliters of soy sauce daily to avoid increasing the burden on the kidneys and aggravating the condition. For patients with high blood potassium, it is forbidden to eat mustard, seaweed, coffee, strong tea, celery, tomatoes, spinach, eggplant, fungus, kelp, potato, sweet potato and other foods that contain a lot of potassium. It is recommended to add enough calories and vitamins, such as fresh vegetables, fruits, chocolate, sugar or high-fat foods.
Chronic kidney disease

  If patients with chronic kidney disease have edema or hypertension, they should reduce their salt intake. Patients with severe edema or low urine output should limit their intake of water and high potassium foods. When the serum creatinine of patients with chronic renal failure is 150μmol/L, protein intake should be restricted (the daily limit is 0.6 grams per kilogram of body weight). While limiting protein intake, it is necessary to ensure the required calories and positive nitrogen balance in the body. For this reason, patients should supplement high-calorie foods, such as glucose, starch, yam, sugar, etc., to avoid malnutrition. Patients with renal failure often have low blood calcium and high blood phosphorus, and are prone to itching or bone lesions. Therefore, more calcium should be supplemented. At the same time, they should avoid drinking carbonated drinks and eating animal internal organs, dried beans and other foods. .
Renal insufficiency

  Patients with acute renal insufficiency can appropriately relax their protein intake. For patients with hyperkalemia, they should eat low-potassium food; if the patient excretes a large amount of potassium during the polyuria period, then increase the potassium intake in the diet.
Uric Acid Nephropathy

  Patients with acute attacks should refrain from eating potassium-containing foods, and may consume appropriate amounts of alkaline foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, milk, etc., to make urine alkaline and help excrete uric acid solution. Since a large amount of protein will be lost during dialysis, an appropriate amount of protein should be supplemented according to nutritional status. At the same time, during the dialysis treatment, the vitamin content in the blood will decrease, so vitamin C and folic acid should be supplemented to maintain the nutrients needed in the body.
After kidney transplantation

  The patient can eat on the second day after kidney transplantation, but care should be taken to control the intake of salt and potassium. As kidney function gradually recovers, protein intake can be gradually increased.
  In short, a scientific and reasonable diet can reduce the burden on the patient’s kidneys and improve the symptoms of the patient’s disease. Therefore, in addition to actively cooperating with doctors and nurses in the treatment and maintaining a good attitude, patients should also master correct dietary knowledge and do a good job in self-diet management.