How many steps are needed to determine the age of the solar system? This question is too esoteric. The solar system is a huge family, and all kinds of planets are centered on the sun. If you want to find out the age of the sun, you should go to a scientist. Let’s see how many steps a scientist takes.
First of all, scientists will find the oldest celestial body in the solar system, or the oldest piece of matter, and then calculate its age, and then they can get a similar age in the solar system.
If you want to know who is the oldest celestial body in the solar system, you must first understand how the solar system was formed, and then you can know who comes first. Scientists hypothesized that the core area of a dense molecular cloud collapsed and formed a protostar. This is the early sun. At that time, there were no planets around the sun, but there was a flat accretion disk that revolved around it, also called a protoplanetary disk. . The protoplanetary disk contains a large amount of gas and a small amount of dust. These dust particles gradually condense from a few micrometers into planets with a size of hundreds of meters to a few kilometers. Then these planets gather together to form a rocky planet. After the gas disk dissipated, the rocky planet experienced many years of changes, and finally became the planets we see today, including the Earth. This result reminds us that if the age of the earth can be determined, then the age of the solar system can also be determined.
As the Curies extracted radioactive elements, scientists began to use the decay of radioactive elements to estimate the age of the earth. This calculation method aroused the interest of chemist Harrison Brown, because Harrison is doing a work on determining the geological age, he decided to use the ultra-long half-life of uranium isotope to determine the geological age. Thus, uranium made its debut. However, Harrison got stuck before he even started, because measuring these data requires someone who knows spectroscopy. Harrison chose to choose, and finally chose his student Claire Patterson to join his team.
Claire immediately began to research after receiving the task. The principle of uranium-lead dating is not complicated. If you can accurately measure how much uranium and lead are contained in a stone, and know how much of this lead is derived from uranium decay, and what is the rate of decay, theoretically Can calculate how many years ago this stone was formed.
But here comes the problem. After obtaining the specimen, how to determine how much lead in it is from the decay of uranium? After repeated comparisons, Claire set his sights on the meteorite.
In 1953, Claire obtained a meteorite specimen from Diablo Canyon. Later, he measured that the ratio of 238U/204Pb was only 0.025, indicating that the uranium content of this meteorite is extremely small, and the decay of the uranium element will not have a great effect on the ratio of the original lead isotope. Claire used this ratio as the initial lead isotope ratio of the meteorite and assumed that the lead isotope ratios of the earth and the meteorite have the same evolution trajectory. Finally, he concluded that the age of the earth is approximately 4.1 billion to 4.6 billion years.
However, Claire still felt that this result was not accurate enough, and he determined the lead isotope ratio in meteorites containing a large amount of uranium and a small amount of lead. Finally, combining various values and using the isochron method, he came up with a more accurate earth age-45.5 (±0.7) billion years, which is only the last step to determine the age of the solar system.
Scientists have found those substances that are older than the earth and have formed before the protoplanetary disk has dissipated. They are the oldest type of substance in the solar system wrapped in carbonaceous chondrites, a kind called calcium aluminum wrap. The crystallization of the body. With the help of isotope decay theory, mass spectrometers and meteorites, scientists have worked hard to gradually reveal the history of the formation of the solar system-it took more than 4 billion years for the solar system to become what it is today.
Can you see it? The age of the solar system can be determined in three practical steps.