“Art” after being drunk

  Wine has always existed in nature. About 4 billion years ago, when life began to appear, single-celled microorganisms were active in the original soup, sipping on simple sugar molecules, and secreted ethanol and carbon dioxide.
  Life continues to evolve, and we have trees and fruits. If left to rot, they will eventually ferment naturally. Fermentation can produce sugar and alcohol, which are swallowed by fruit flies when they find it. We don’t know whether fruit flies will get drunk as we humans understand it. They can neither speak nor sing nor drink and drive. The only thing we know is that if a male fruit fly encounters a setback in love and is kicked away mercilessly by a proud female fruit fly, it will drink drunk and sorrow through alcohol.
  Historically, humans have been trying to define the ambiguous word “wine”: for example, barley “wine”, rice “wine”, jujube “wine”, apple “wine”, sorbus “wine”, plum “wine”, as well as “Wine” made from cornel fruit or other fruits that fall to the ground, etc. For a long time, this kind of liquid for people to drink has too many different definitions. “Ancient” wine and “modern” wine have basically no similarities. It is not only different in quality or yield, but in essence. different.
Those “drunkard” artists

  The habit of drinking can sometimes help us at work. There is a saying in the art circle: the distance between you and the artist is only a glass of wine. For artists, wine is almost like a muse, and most artists are “drunkards”. From ancient times to the present, drinking has always been an important motif in art, from myth to mundane, it will always have its shadow.

“99 bottles of beer on the wall” is an art project of Sanford, which is not only a daily social experience, but also a tribute to Morandi’s elegant still life paintings.

  Cézanne, the son of a well-to-do banker, was born in the wine country. The Provence wine he must drink every day is always the wine of his hometown, which is reflected in many of his paintings. Perhaps Cezanne, who left his hometown in pursuit of art and love, incorporated his passion for his hometown into this wine.
  And everyone loves Van Gogh, he is a big fan of absinthe. This is a kind of wine with hallucinogenic effect, because absinthe contains a chemical component called absinthe brain, which has a hallucinogenic effect very similar to the THC in cannabis, and it can make people have a strong sense of excitement. , Fluttering in the air. Van Gogh fell in love with it overwhelmingly after drinking it. Since then, his works have become colorful… In addition to Van Gogh, Gauguin is also a fan of absinthe, when he spent time in Tahiti When living with indigenous people, the only things that could not be spared were tobacco and absinthe. It was he who recommended this “green elf” to Van Gogh back then.
  Rembrandt, who was poor and gloomy in his later years, also had a period of spending money. During this period, he spent a lot of money on alcohol, often holding a large glass of beer in the pub to talk about it.
  For New York artist Tom Sanford, drinking inspired his creation. “99 bottles of beer on the wall” is an art project of Sanford, which is not only a daily social experience, but also a tribute to Morandi’s elegant still life paintings. In this project, Sanford set himself a very simple task-to drink, and then draw the bottle.
  Sanford found inspiration from the predecessors of drinking art, such as Martin Kippenberger’s self-portrait holding a beer, or Edward Manet’s famous work “The Bar at the Goddess Hall”, and the famous Jasper Jones Beer can sculpture. Sanford’s “99 bottles of beer” series progressed very quickly. The specific steps were to drink in the studio with his friends and colleagues, and then draw the remaining bottles on the drawing board. At the same time, he will post the entire project process on his photo wall (Instagram). Among the participants in this project are artists, neighbors, and strangers who happen to come by.
  In order to maintain the inspiration for creating this project, Sanford lives completely in the world of wine. He admitted that this was indeed a repetitive assignment, but he found a suitable way to make the whole project lively. For a bottle of Suhl beer that he drank on the roof in May, he painted the background in yellow and orange as dazzling as the sun.
  Before the “99 bottles of beer” project, Sanford had already played a similar game: he assigned himself an assignment, made his own rules, and set his own deadline. In 2012, he painted 100 celebrities who died that year; in 2015, he accepted a commission to paint 100 celebrities from Nevada. Beer bottles may be a bit different, but they are like people, each bottle has its own unique personality. After the project is over, the artist has to clean up his studio full of wine bottles. Of course, it may take him a few weeks to go to the alcohol rehab center to get rid of his alcohol addiction. Even he himself said: “What I want to say about this project is that I may have to develop a healthy recipe for myself after this.”
Animal drinking is crazy

  There are also some good alcoholics among animals, but one thing is regrettable: there is generally no ready-made, sufficient amount of alcohol in nature to allow them to hold a decent party. However, there are sometimes. There is an island in the sea near Panama. The hairy howler monkeys happily enjoy the fruit drop of the Mulus star fruit brown (4.5% alcohol content). Sometimes I even fall from the tree and hurt myself. If you combine their alcohol intake with body weight, it is equivalent to drinking two bottles of wine in 30 minutes. But this kind of situation is extremely rare, because for most animals, there is simply not enough wine to supply them, unless a scientist catches them and locks them in the laboratory and constantly supplies them with alcohol.
  The drunk animals are quite interesting. This makes people wonder: those scientists who meticulously conduct experiments and want to observe the effects of alcohol on the brain and behavior of our “cousins”-quadruped mammals will snicker the whole process.
  What happens when you give a mouse a glass of spirits? Or what will happen if the supply is simply opened up without restriction? In fact, animals are quite civilized. Although the performance of the first few days may not be elegant and a bit crazy, most animals will gradually develop the habit of drinking twice a day: once before feeding, scientists call this ” Cocktail time”; another time before going to bed, it was a drink before going to bed. Every 3 or 4 days, the consumption of wine will increase suddenly, because all the rats will gather together to hold a unique rat party, which looks quite fairy tale. However, not all mice are lucky to be tested in the laboratory, and there is a dark side to the drunken state of murine animals. There is usually a male leader in the rat group, the rat king, who is a prohibitionist. Male rats in the lowest social class consume the highest amount of alcohol. They drink to relieve tension and temporarily forget their worries. They seem to drink because they are losers.

  This is one of the most difficult problems trying to study animal drinking. Those poor little animals were locked up and were jabbed constantly, one by one like a bird of fright. In this case, they will accept any narcotics given to them.
  Therefore, researchers are trying to find clever ways to allow animals to drink without frightening them, especially for elephants. Because under any circumstances, you definitely don’t want to stimulate a drunk elephant, at this time the elephant will become very violent. In 1985, there was an accident in India: a group of elephants broke into a winery and it caused a catastrophe. At that time, there were about 150 elephants, all of them drunk, they began to provoke trouble and rampage. They overturned 7 concrete factories and trampled on 5 people. A drunk elephant is enough trouble, let alone 150.
  Therefore, the researchers put the work in the safari park, which is easier to control when implemented. They loaded a few barrels of beer on a light pickup truck, drove the car closer to the elephant, opened the lid of the barrel, and let them have a drink. During this process, elephants usually have some physical collisions, and strong male elephants will drink most of the beer. Then you will see them staggering, staggering, and finally falling asleep slowly. The scene is very interesting. However, even in this situation there will be trouble. A researcher got a strong male elephant drunk, and as a result he had to go to a fight because the drunk elephant fought with a rhinoceros. Normally, elephants don’t attack rhinos, but beer makes it dazzling.
  In contrast, studying ants is much safer. There was once a theory that there were passwords between ants. Ants are social animals. They do not allow strange ants from other colonies to enter their colony. This raises a question: How do they distinguish each other? The password theory sounds weird, but it was very popular among the whimsical Victorian naturalists, until the theory was completely overthrown by Sir John Lubeck. He conducted a series of experiments in the 1870s.

Self-portrait of Edward Munch.

Edward Munch (right).

  It has always been believed that each colony of ants has its own specific signal or password, and they distinguish each other through these signals or passwords. To test this, Sir John Lubke used some anesthetics. First, he tried to use chloroform, but this substance is lethal to ants, and the test results are very unsatisfactory. So he decided to get them drunk, but it was more difficult than expected, because none of those ants were willing to destroy themselves and get drunk. But Sir John Lubke solved the difficulty: soaking them in whiskey for a while. He used 50 samples, of which 25 were from one ant’s nest and the other 25 were from another ant’s nest. The ants were so drunk that he marked each ant with paint and put them on the table.
  The other ants from one of the nests are eating nearby on the table, surrounded by a circle of water to prevent them from running around. The group of ants who were eating quickly noticed the drunk ants. They seemed quite surprised when they discovered that their companions were so embarrassed, and they didn’t know how to treat this group of drunks. But after a while, they moved all these drunks away: the strange ants were thrown into the water by them, and they carried the friends home, let them sleep in their nests, and slowly sober up. Obviously, ants can identify their partners, even if these “drunks” cannot send out signals or give orders.
  This may sound absurd, but the connection between human drunkenness and animal drunkenness and the way animals imitate humans has in fact greatly influenced the biological development of the Victorian period. Charles Darwin thinks that drunk chimpanzees are funny, which is true, but he also thinks that these great apes have extraordinary meanings, so he is very interested when he hears descriptions of how people catch baboons.
  Indigenous people in northeastern Africa filled containers with high-quality beer and put them outdoors. Wild baboons were caught when they were drunk. A German zoologist once saw baboons who were drunk. He imprisoned the baboons and recorded their behaviors and peculiar strange appearances. Their performance made people laugh. The next morning, these baboons were grumpy and depressed, with their hands holding their heads that were so painful after a hangover, and their expressions were really pitiful. When they are offered beer or red wine at this time, they will immediately turn and leave with a look of disgust, but they have a soft spot for lemon juice.
  After being drunk with brandy, American spider monkeys will never touch this kind of wine again in their lives. From this point of view, they are smarter than many people.

“Self-Portrait with Champagne”, works by Max Beckman, 1919.

As early as the end of the 15th century in Russia, after a group of monks created a liquid for disinfection, some people tried to drink the liquid and felt good. Subsequently, people used imported alcohol, local grains and spring water to brew vodka.

“Absolute Vodka”, works by Andy Warhol, 1986.
With wine

  Except for tree shrews in Malaysia, humans can drink better than any other mammals. You must not compete with Malaysian tree shrews for drinking, or if you are competing with them, you must not follow their way, and do not compete with alcohol based on weight. Tree shrews can drink 9 glasses of red wine and are not uncomfortable after drinking, because they have adapted to fermented palm nectar during evolution. After millions of years of evolution, the tree shrews who can drink the most naturally survive in Malaysia and become the current drinking champions.

  The same is true for human beings. Through gradual evolution, they have developed the habit of drinking. Early humans needed the overripe fruits that fell on the woodland-which contained a lot of sugar and alcohol, so that humans’ sense of smell would gradually become sharper and they could smell the smell of alcohol in the distance. Guided by the smell of alcohol, humans can find fruits containing sugar. This produces the “aperitif effect” known to researchers. The taste and taste of alcohol makes us appetite. If you think about it carefully, this is a bit unreasonable: Alcohol contains a lot of calories, but why does it make people want to eat more calories after taking in some calories?
  Some people may say that the right amount of juniper berry soda can promote the movement of the digestive system. But this statement is not correct, because intravenous alcohol can also produce the same effect, and drunk dieters will not easily lose self-control. Alcohol can trigger a special neuron in the brain, making you feel strong hunger. When you feel particularly hungry, this neuron is also triggered.
  Alcohol leads us to find food and stimulates us to eat more food. But we need to break down this alcohol, otherwise we will become other people’s food. It is already very difficult to repel prehistoric predators while awake. Trying to attack a sharp-toothed tiger while drunk is simply a nightmare.
  A fairly obvious genetic mutation occurred 10 million years ago, allowing humans to break down alcohol almost as efficiently as the Malaysian tree shrew. This is related to a special enzyme that humans began to secrete. Humans (or the ancestors of humans) were suddenly able to get all the other great apes drunk under the table. For modern people, 10% of the enzymes in the liver are used to convert alcohol into energy.
  The hypothesis about drunken monkeys is also very interesting: all of these are evolutionary procedures, we like to drink, because alcohol is a reward for all the calories we consume; we share it with people in the circle, because it proves that great apes feed their families and feed the group. The approach made sense; we drink together because it provides protection-a single drunk will become the prey of other animals, but the gathering of 20 drunks will make the sharp-toothed tiger weigh heavily.
  Human beings are the best among alcoholics, and the drunken monkey hypothesis theory explains why, although not all biologists agree with this theory, and some even think that the theory of evolution is a lie. For humans, the most important development about drinking is the last step: how to drink. For wine, different countries have different toasting etiquette.
  The etiquette of toasting originated in England. When people drink wine, they always pair it with bread. One is that it can make the wine more delicious and the taste is richer, and the other is that it can reduce the acidity of the wine with bread.
  French people like to drink red wine very much, and they also have a lot of attention when drinking red wine. They feel that pouring themselves is a relatively low behavior, so there is a waiter. The bartender will give priority to the ladies, usually about half a cup.
  Italians only drink water or wine when eating. If they drink other than these two kinds of drinks, such as beer, soda, fruit juice, etc., it will be considered a taboo.
  In order not to disturb the sedimentation on the bottom of the wine bottle with cork, and to avoid the cork chips from spoiling the good wine, they invented an interesting way to open the bottle, which is to use hot tongs to directly pinch the bottleneck. Then put ice water or ice towel on the heated neck part to cool it down.
  In the Netherlands, when people drink whiskey, there is a “head mallet” method, which is to not pick up the glass with your hands, but directly lower your head to drink the fine wine on the table. If there is a glass of beer next to it, they will drink it in the same way.
  Toasting is a very important part of Georgian culture. Usually they need to toast up to 20 to 30 times for each meal, and the same is true for foreign travelers.
  In Nigeria, only after the bride and groom drink a glass of traditional palm wine, the marriage between the two officially takes effect.
  In Peru, friends will share the same glass of wine: the first person pours himself the wine and takes a sip, and then passes the glass to the next person.