Chronic glomerulonephritis, referred to as chronic nephritis, is an immune inflammatory disease that originates in the glomerulus caused by a variety of reasons. The cause of most patients is relatively insidious, and the course of disease is long. After several years to decades, it gradually develops into renal failure. The main therapeutic goal of chronic glomerulonephritis is to effectively protect renal function, improve symptoms, eliminate proteinuria and consolidate clinical efficacy. This article introduces some knowledge about chronic glomerulonephritis.
Factors leading to chronic renal failure
The main causes of chronic renal failure are hypertension, uncontrolled protein and phosphorus intake, infection, and the use of nephrotoxic drugs. In order to effectively avoid the acceleration of renal failure in patients, patients with renal failure should regularly monitor their blood pressure. Any diastolic blood pressure above 12.5kPa and systolic blood pressure above 20kPa are considered hypertensive. If there is a tendency for severe high blood pressure, the patient should do the following. ①If the patient’s weight has exceeded 15% of the standard normal weight, it means that the daily diet should be properly restricted to control the weight. ② Limit sodium intake, not exceeding 2g/d. ③ Quit smoking and drinking. ④ Avoid eating animal fats, aerobic exercise appropriately. If the diastolic blood pressure ≥12.7kPa and systolic blood pressure ≥21.3kPa, the patient should be treated with medication in time, which can be taken with propylpropylate, which can not only lower blood pressure, but also dilate the renal arteries and reduce the pressure on the glomeruli . If there is aminemia, patients should pay attention to control protein and phosphorus intake, reduce the consumption of dairy products, eggs, meat, soybeans and dried fruits, avoid shrimp skin, mutton and liver, etc., eat more fresh in moderation Vegetables and potassium-containing fruits, such as bananas and oranges.
Some precautions for patients with chronic nephritis
1. Reasonable medication. Patients with chronic nephritis need to use diuretics, antihypertensive drugs and various hormone treatment drugs. Medical staff should explain the correct medication, side effects and points of attention to patients. Commonly used potassium-sparing diuretics are spironolactone and triamcinolone. The use of the two together generally does not cause hypokalemia. Patients who use prednisone generally need to take medicine for a long time. Medical staff should tell patients the specific method of taking this medicine and the amount of medicine they take. They should be taken on time. Patients should not increase or decrease the amount of medicine at will, so as to avoid side effects and reduce the effectiveness of medicine. Long-term large-scale use of prednisone may cause hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and may accelerate the decomposition of human proteins, causing osteoporosis, spontaneous fractures, and aseptic femoral head necrosis. Patients should usually add some from the diet. High-quality foods containing calcium and potassium. In the use of various anti-infective drugs, patients should be careful to use various drugs that have obvious damage to human kidney function, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, etc., and penicillin and sulfonamides should also be used with caution.
2. Control diet. The patient’s diet should be adjusted according to the patient’s condition. When proteinuria occurs without azotemia, protein intake should be increased (more than 1.5g per kilogram of body weight). Milk, eggs, and Lean meat products. When the patient has obvious azotemia, the protein intake should be controlled, and the intake of protein and phosphorus should be controlled (protein 0.4-0.6g per kilogram body weight, phosphorus 2-3g per kilogram body weight). The patient does not need to limit salt intake when there is no obvious edema, and the diet can be light. If there is obvious edema, the amount of salt should be controlled at 2 to 3 g per day. Patients should properly increase potassium intake when using potassium excretion diuretics. The diet should be rich in vitamin B, vitamin C, eat a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables, to maintain smooth stool.
3. Cold and warm. Cold stimulation can cause the blood vessels of the body to contract quickly and blood pressure to rise sharply. After the patient gets cold, the blood flow is significantly reduced, and the kidney function is reduced. Especially when the cold is cold, it will directly aggravate the kidney and cause complications. Therefore, patients must increase or decrease clothing in time according to seasonal changes.
4. Pay attention to rest. If the patient does not have much urine protein, edema is not obvious, there is no serious hypertension, and the kidney function is normal, you can work normally, but you should try to avoid excessive physical activity as much as possible, to avoid moisture, cold and excessive fatigue. When the patient has obvious edema, hematuria visible to the naked eye or a large number of microscopic hematuria, and severe hypertension, he should immediately rest in bed and seek medical treatment in a timely manner.
5. Adjust the mentality. Excessive joy, anger, sorrow, fear, startle, etc. will make people’s emotions fluctuate, and are likely to cause subtle changes in chronic kidney disease. Patients should learn to control their emotions correctly, avoid negative emotions such as impatience and pessimism, maintain a calm and optimistic attitude, and actively cooperate with treatment.
6. Prevent infection. Preventing infection can prevent acute attacks of chronic glomerulonephritis. Patients should actively take various preventive measures. They should wear masks when going out in winter, and use vinegar to fumigate and disinfect the room during flu season. Patients who are in stable condition and getting better can take physical exercise as appropriate, such as practicing Taijiquan and Health Qigong.
7. Other matters. After discharge, patients need to continue to insist on long-term treatment, and patients who need to continue taking prednisone should be prescribed drugs for a long time and increase or decrease the amount of drugs in time under the guidance of physicians. Patients should pay attention to the nutritional balance of their daily diet, and do not overeat. If obvious edema, severe high blood pressure, or signs of infection and acute attacks are found, the patient should seek medical attention in a timely manner. If there are no special circumstances, the patient can have a routine urine test every two weeks to a month and a kidney function test every six months.