After coronary heart disease is treated with stents, it is easy to go to two extremes: one is to feel better, and to exercise a lot of revenge; the other is to always think about a “metal foreign body” in the heart, be cautious and basically not exercise. What should we do? The current guidelines suggest that patients after stenting should undergo cardiac rehabilitation assessment (cardiopulmonary exercise test, treadmill exercise test or 6-minute walk test, etc.) in the hospital, and formulate corresponding exercise prescriptions according to the condition of cardiac function; the principle of exercise is: safety First, make progress gradually.
How to ensure sports safety? I suggest to do the following 4 points-
1. Make a scientific exercise prescription
The benefits of exercise therapy need to be realized through precise and individualized exercise prescriptions. Exercise prescriptions are based on medical evaluation by physicians, rehabilitation therapists and exercise therapists, according to age, gender, physical health, symptoms, signs, cardiopulmonary function, disease status, functional levels of various organs, and functional requirements for returning to society. People with diseases, sub-healthy people, and people with specific sports, formulate systematic and individualized exercise treatment programs in the form of prescriptions to improve damaged physical, psychological and social functions, improve self-healing ability and regeneration ability, and improve prognosis and survival The purpose of quality.
Exercise prescription is the cornerstone of cardiovascular disease treatment and an important part of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation. The European and American Cardiac Rehabilitation Guidelines strongly recommend that patients with severe cardiovascular disease undergo accurate cardiopulmonary function assessment before cardiac rehabilitation, so as to formulate accurate and safe exercise prescriptions that match the patient’s physical strength and cardiac function. At present, it is widely recommended in clinical practice to use cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess the overall function of patients. This test has the advantages of non-invasiveness, non-radioactive, reproducibility, etc., and can fully reflect the functions of the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles in the resting and active state of the body . Therefore, patients after stenting must actively participate in the cardiopulmonary exercise test, and the doctor will customize a scientific and safe exercise prescription for you based on the test results.
2. Grasp the timing of exercise
When moving within one month after stenting, move lightly and walk slowly to avoid excessive range of movement; those undergoing transfemoral artery surgery should avoid frequent squatting, prolonged squatting, leg lifting and other squeezing movements; transradial arm The surgeon should avoid excessive bending of the upper limbs and lifting heavy objects. As time goes by, the cells on the coronary blood vessels will grow and migrate, and finally cover the entire surface of the stent, making the stent a part of the human blood vessel, and movement will not cause the stent to shift or fall out. Therefore, one month after the operation, you can start to try aerobic exercises (such as walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, climbing stairs, etc.), resistance exercises (such as dumbbells, exercise equipment, elastic bands), flexibility exercises, etc. Aerobic exercise can increase the elasticity of coronary arteries, improve vascular endothelial function, promote the establishment of coronary collateral circulation, and compensatoryly improve the blood and oxygen supply of coronary arteries.
3. Control exercise intensity and frequency
1 to 6 months after discharge, moderate-intensity exercise under ECG blood pressure monitoring 3 to 5 times a week, including aerobic exercise, impedance exercise and flexibility training, etc., each lasting 30 to 90 minutes for a total of 3 months Around, the recommended number of exercise rehabilitation is 36 times, not less than 25 times. After 6 months, the exercise intensity should be 50% to 70% of the maximum oxygen consumption or 60% to 80% of the maximum heart rate (220-age), and the ECG should be monitored intermittently. One year after myocardial infarction, if the heart function reserve reaches the level of healthy people, you can choose to participate in sports competitions and consume at least 1,000 calories per week.
If you experience chest pain, shortness of breath, suffocation and fatigue during exercise and exercise, you should stop immediately; if you feel that your heart suddenly loses control or beats too fast, or if you feel light dizziness, fatigue, or irregular pulse, you should call 120 in time .
4. Focus on warm-up and relaxation activities
Classic sports rehabilitation includes four parts: warm-up activities, training exercises, stretching and relaxation activities. Each part is very important and should not be omitted. The warm-up activities usually use low-intensity to low-intensity aerobic exercise for 5-10 minutes. The purpose is to relax and stretch muscles, improve joint mobility and cardiovascular fitness, and prevent exercise-induced adverse cardiac events and sports injuries . Relaxation activities are based on 5-10 minutes of low-intensity to low-intensity cardiovascular endurance and muscle endurance exercises. The more severe the illness, the longer the duration of the relaxation exercise