Cerebral infarction is caused by ischemia and hypoxia and necrosis of local brain tissue due to various reasons. Most patients have basic diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. If preventive measures are not in place, recurrence is very likely. The summer is the high incidence of cerebral infarction. Some patients may catch cold or diarrhea due to the air-conditioning, cold or diarrhea, which will condense blood and cause blood pressure fluctuations, which is prone to danger, especially those with poor vascular conditions and relatively severe arteriosclerosis. Elderly people should pay more attention. So, how to prevent the second attack of cerebral infarction? The following measures are recommended:
Change bad lifestyle
According to the pathogenesis of cerebral infarction, the patient’s diet should adhere to the principles of lightness, low salt, low fat, low sugar, high-quality protein, and guarantee of minerals and trace elements. Specifically, patients with heavy tastes should overcome many years of eating habits, put less salt and eat less pickles to reduce salt intake, which is conducive to controlling blood pressure; cooking should be done with steaming, boiling, stewing, and boiling as much as possible. Use vegetable oil as much as possible for cooking. Use olive oil or tea seed oil if possible. The daily cholesterol intake should not exceed 300 mg. Try to eat less animal organs, fish roe, etc.; high-quality protein Mainly protein, such as tofu, dried tofu, fish and shrimp, lean meat, egg white, skimmed or low-fat milk; eat less or no food with high mono- and di-sugar content, such as various sweet snacks and ice cream , Drinks, etc.; appropriate intake of potassium-rich foods, such as bananas, avocados, almonds, peanuts, citrus, green leafy vegetables (such as spinach, kale, lettuce leaves, water spinach, amaranth, etc.), dairy products, etc.
Patients should quit smoking completely and control their alcohol consumption. The average daily drinking volume of male patients should not exceed 50 grams, and female patients should not exceed 25 grams. Of course, it is best to not drink alcohol.
Obesity is a risk factor for cerebral infarction. Patients should control their weight through diet (especially high-energy food) and physical exercise. Consistent exercise can reduce the risk of recurrence by 20%. At least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity should be performed every day, such as walking, jogging, Tai Chi, riding a bicycle, etc., 5 to 7 times a week.
Keep taking medication
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, coronary heart disease, etc. can all cause cerebral infarction.
Patients with cerebral infarction with hypertension should control their blood pressure below 140/90mmHg. Currently, the first-choice drug is recommended.
Many patients with cerebral infarction check that their blood lipids, especially total cholesterol, are within the normal range and think that oral lipid-lowering drugs are not needed. This understanding is wrong. In fact, it is the low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein in total cholesterol that are closely related to atherosclerotic cerebral infarction. Therefore, patients should not only look at the total cholesterol level, but also check the high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein. . The higher the high-density lipoprotein, the better, at least it should be greater than 50 mg/ml, and the low-density lipoprotein should be less than 100 mg/ml. It is clinically recommended that long-term oral statins (such as simvastatin or atorvastatin) should be taken orally as long as atherosclerotic cerebral infarction, regardless of blood lipid level, but its side effects, such as liver damage and muscle damage, should be paid attention to. . Liver function and myocardial enzymes should be checked for 1 to 2 months after starting to use statins, especially for patients with muscle weakness and soreness.
Patients with cerebral infarction with diabetes should strictly control their blood sugar at a normal level, regularly check blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, and control glycosylated hemoglobin to less than 7%.
In addition to cerebral infarction caused by cardiac causes such as atrial fibrillation, patients need long-term oral warfarin to prevent re-infarction, and patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction need life-long oral antiplatelet drugs to prevent re-infarction. The commonly used antiplatelet drug is enteric-coated aspirin with a dose of 50-100 mg, once a day, preferably after dinner. The main side effects of aspirin are bleeding, such as gastrointestinal bleeding and nose bleeding, but the incidence is extremely low. Studies have shown that the benefits of applying aspirin to patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction far outweigh the side effects of bleeding. For patients with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, etc., or allergic to aspirin, it is recommended to use clopidogrel, 75 mg each time, once a day.
After cerebral infarction, patients should regularly check blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood sugar and blood lipids, etc., and consult a neurologist based on their own examination results to obtain solutions.