Pneumonia is the first of the four major diseases that the country requires for the prevention and treatment of children’s health care since the 1950s, because it is one of the main diseases that cause the death of children under 5 years of age. But this does not mean that all pneumonia is so critical. According to the World Health Organization, 10% of children with pneumonia require hospitalization, and 90% of children can be treated at home. So, how can I treat my child with pneumonia?
Easy to confuse with a cold
Pediatric pneumonia is mainly caused by lung inflammation caused by different pathogens. In addition, inhalation of amniotic fluid and allergic reactions are also causes of lung inflammation.
The clinical symptoms of pneumonia in children are mainly cough and fever, which are similar to cold symptoms, so parents should pay special attention to the distinction between pneumonia and cold symptoms in children. Generally speaking, most fevers caused by pneumonia have a body temperature of around 38°C and last a relatively long time; fevers caused by colds are mostly lower than 38°C and last a relatively short time. The cough caused by pneumonia is more serious, and you will feel that the cough comes out of the trachea; and the cough caused by a cold is generally sputum. Children with pneumonia will have difficulty breathing and breathe faster; cough and wheezing caused by a cold is paroxysmal and will not be accompanied by breathing difficulties.
Blood routine is the key to diagnosis
To diagnose pneumonia, blood routines must be done. Through this examination, the doctor can initially determine whether the child is infected with bacteria or viruses. The blood test results are usually available within half an hour. If the white blood cells are relatively high, it may be a bacterial infection; if the white blood cells are normal or low, the virus infection may be greater. Of course, there are doctors’ empirical analysis. For example, at the turn of winter and spring, pneumonia is mostly caused by influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
The guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in our country clearly point out that if a doctor hears fixed small and medium blisters through auscultation, it can basically be determined that it is pneumonia, and there is no need to do chest radiographs. However, if pneumonia is highly suspected, the signs are not obvious, or the child has difficulty breathing, etc., a chest radiograph is required. For some severely ill children who need to be hospitalized, etiological examinations are required, such as sputum pathogen examination, blood antibody examination, and lung X-ray examination.
90% of pneumonia does not require infusion treatment
Clinical statistics found that 90% of pneumonia does not require infusion treatment, and they are mild pneumonia. The guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia in children in my country also clearly point out that many pneumonias can actually be treated with oral medications. Pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae should be treated with penicillin, and children with allergies should be treated with erythromycin drugs. Under normal circumstances, pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus will choose oxacillin, cloxacillin and other drugs; pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae will choose amoxicillin particles or plus sulbactam for treatment; caused by pneumoniae bacteria and E. coli Pneumonia should be treated with ceftriaxone or cefotaxime sodium; Mycoplasma pneumonia should be treated with azithromycin and erythromycin; for viral pneumonia, symptomatic treatment should be given priority to isolation and disinfection to prevent cross-infection. Most prognosis is good without complications.
Severe pneumonia only needs intravenous infusion treatment; or the child cannot be treated with medicine because of some complicated diseases, such as severe vomiting and diarrhea, and cannot take oral medicine. At this time, infusion is acceptable. For these children with severe pneumonia, if the body temperature drops to normal after 24 hours, and the physical signs are relatively stable, breathing difficulties, and cough symptoms are alleviated, then the infusion can be stopped and oral medication can be used for sequential treatment.
Pay attention to the details of life to prevent pneumonia in children
Children who are recovering from pneumonia should have a balanced diet, eat more foods rich in vitamins, and foods containing high-quality protein such as milk and eggs. Parents should pay attention to the following points to prevent children from developing pneumonia: First, open windows regularly to ensure the circulation and freshness of indoor air; during the epidemic, try not to bring children in and out of crowded public places; take children outside to expose themselves. Sun, and in the process, continue to improve the children’s adaptability to temperature changes, thereby further enhancing the children’s physical fitness; we must fully do the children’s immunization plan, and regularly inject 13-valent Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine.