Swallowing foreign objects is more common in daily life. Some small objects may be swallowed into the esophagus, causing serious consequences, such as being stuck in the esophagus or scratching the esophagus with sharp objects, it may also cause abdominal infection, gastric perforation, or intestinal perforation. The main symptoms are nausea. , Abdominal pain, black stool, hematemesis, etc. Therefore, when a foreign body is swallowed, people should take corresponding first aid measures in time to help the person who accidentally spit out the foreign body.
(1) Abdominal pressing method
The Heimlich emergency method is recognized as the most effective way to treat patients swallowing foreign bodies. As long as the patient is conscious, the abdominal pressing method of the Heimlich emergency method can be used. The specific treatment methods are as follows. The rescuer stands behind the patient and asks the patient to separate their legs. The distance between the legs should be the same as the shoulder width and not too large or too small. If the distance between the legs of the patient is too large, it is difficult for the rescuer to operate; if the distance between the legs is too small, the patient’s stability cannot be controlled during treatment. After that, the medical staff put one of their legs between the two legs of the patient to control the stability of the patient’s body. After keeping the patient in a good posture, immediately open all the fingers of one hand of the rescuer, and clenched the fist with the other hand. Use the hand with the open fingers to firmly hold the wrist of the hand where the fist is clenched. After holding the patient’s abdomen, press the patient’s abdomen using inward and upward methods to expel foreign bodies in the esophagus. After the operation, if the foreign body has not been discharged, the rescuer can repeat this method several times until the foreign body in the patient’s esophagus is discharged. It should be noted that after the patient falls into a coma, the rescuer should immediately stop this treatment method and implement other methods.
(2) Chest push method
Obese patients and pregnant women have certain difficulties and dangers in using abdominal compression. Such people can only be treated with chest compression. This treatment method is also one of Heimlick’s treatment methods. The rescuer stands behind the patient and asks the patient to spread his legs so that they are shoulder-width apart. After that, the rescuer placed his arms under the patient’s arms, clenched the fist with one hand and placed the thumb in the fist, then put the fist against the patient’s chest, and then used the other hand to hold the fist. Push the patient’s chest inward and repeat the operation several times until the patient discharges the foreign body. The chest pressing method is very similar to the abdomen pressing method. Their principle is to spit out foreign bodies from the mouth by pressing and squeezing, so as to achieve the treatment effect.
(3) Rescue method
Infants and young children can use another treatment method of Heimlich-the back treatment method. The specific operation method is that the rescuer puts the infant face down on his knees, supports the child’s chest, and then gently pats the child’s back with the other hand. The strength of the pat can be adjusted according to the child’s age. Repeat several times until the foreign matter is discharged.
(4) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
If the patient is unconscious, the rescuer cannot use the Heimlich emergency method. It should be placed on a flat ground in time, dial the emergency number, and then immediately determine whether the patient has breathing and heartbeat, and check whether the patient is conscious by shouting or tapping the patient. . If the patient is still breathing, the rescuer should observe the patient’s breathing and heartbeat changes at any time before the ambulance arrives. When the patient stops beating and breathing, the rescuer should immediately perform CPR. After the first cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is necessary to observe whether the patient’s chest rises and falls. If there is no chest rise, this method needs to be used repeatedly for first aid until the medical staff arrives or the patient recovers signs of life.
(5) Emetic method
The vomiting method is very simple. It is to put a finger into the patient’s mouth to stimulate the patient to vomit. This method is only suitable for patients whose foreign body has not completely entered the esophagus, such as the foreign body still in the throat or respiratory tract.
(6) Dial the emergency number
If all kinds of first aid methods have no effect, the rescuer should call the emergency number in time. For patients who have stopped breathing and heartbeat, emergency personnel will first check whether there are foreign bodies in the patient’s mouth after arrival. If there are foreign bodies in the patient’s mouth, first clean up the foreign bodies in the mouth, and then perform a cardiopulmonary resuscitation. When any effect is achieved, emergency personnel will use a defibrillator to rescue the patient.