Complications during pregnancy refer to some diseases caused by or concurrent with pregnancy. The complications of early pregnancy include spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, hyperemesis gravidarum, etc.; the complications of late pregnancy mainly include hypertension during pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, etc. Here we mainly introduce the situation and prevention of the three common and serious complications of pregnancy including hypertension, gestational diabetes, and gestational heart disease.
Hypertension during pregnancy
Pregnancy or high blood pressure in the 12 weeks before pregnancy, usually the original high blood pressure, high blood pressure caused by non-pregnancy; increased blood pressure after 20 weeks of pregnancy, high pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg, low pressure greater than or equal to 90 mmHg Column, diagnosed as hypertension during pregnancy. Pregnancy hypertension is one of the dangerous diseases during pregnancy, and it is the main cause of maternal and perinatal death. In order to give birth to a healthy baby, the doctor will measure the blood pressure at every check-up to ensure the health of the pregnant woman. Good pre-pregnancy education and health care during pregnancy can greatly reduce the probability of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
It is recommended for families with conditions to bring their own blood pressure measuring instrument to keep abreast of the blood pressure of pregnant women. Here’s how to prevent high blood pressure during pregnancy.
1. Do regular prenatal check-ups, keep abreast of yourself and your baby’s situation, communicate with your doctor more, and seek medical treatment immediately if anything is abnormal.
2. To maintain good work and rest habits, staying up late is prohibited. Normal and regular work and rest play an important role in preventing pregnancy-induced hypertension.
3. Pay more attention to blood pressure and weight. Pay attention to changes in blood pressure and weight. Blood pressure can be measured and recorded daily. If there is any abnormality, seek medical attention in time.
4. Don’t smoke. The nicotine in tobacco constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
5. Pay attention to diet and balanced nutrition. Don’t eat too much or too greasy food. Eat more fresh vegetables and fruits. You should eat fish, meat, eggs, milk and other high-protein, high-calcium, high-potassium and low-sodium foods.
6. Insist on proper physical exercise. Walking, jogging or long-distance running can relax the muscles of the whole body and promote the decrease of blood pressure. Don’t make movements that are too violent to bow your head, bend over, change too much, and forcefully hold your breath to avoid accidents.
7. For pregnant women who have a second child, if pregnancy-induced hypertension occurred in the previous child, after a doctor’s examination, some preventive drugs can be prescribed to prevent the occurrence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, such as calcium, aspirin, vitamin C, etc.
8. Keep a good mood, don’t get angry easily, don’t engage in high-intensity, high-pressure work, and avoid mental stress.
9. Pregnant women’s families need to pay attention to creating and maintaining a harmonious and warm family atmosphere, and not to stimulate pregnant women.
10. Control weight. Obesity is a risk factor for hypertension in pregnancy. Many studies have shown that pregnant women’s body mass index before pregnancy and the increase in body mass index during pregnancy are closely related to pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcome. Controlling body weight is one of the effective ways to reduce the occurrence of hypertension in pregnancy.
Gestational diabetes refers to normal blood glucose before pregnancy, fasting blood glucose greater than or equal to 5.1 mmol/L in glucose tolerance test after 24 weeks, blood glucose greater than or equal to 10.0 mmol/L in 1 hour after meal, blood glucose greater than or equal to 8.5 mmol in 2 hours after meal Mole/L, the incidence rate in my country is 1% to 5%. Gestational diabetes can increase the possibility of mothers suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension by 2 to 4 times, infection, miscarriage, premature delivery, stillbirth, and deformity; it can also cause neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and hypoglycemia; 17%~ 63% of pregnant women are at long-term risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Pregnant women and their families must attach great importance to it.
1. Pay attention to pre-pregnancy consultation. All women of childbearing age should be informed of the importance of strictly controlling blood sugar before pregnancy, and the measures to be taken to prevent diabetes, and promptly discover abnormalities and treat them in time.
2. Form a good diet and living habits. Reasonable control of total calorie intake during pregnancy. In the middle and late stages of pregnancy, each kilogram of body weight per day is calculated based on 25-35 kcal calories, and the diet is adjusted at any time according to blood sugar and urine sugar.
3. Strictly control the intake of simple sugars that are easily absorbed by the body, such as the intake of sucrose, granulated sugar, fructose, glucose, rock sugar, etc., which is beneficial to control blood sugar.
4. Ensure adequate protein intake. The protein intake of sick pregnant women should be more than that of normal pregnant women, of which animal protein accounts for 1/3; it is best to drink two glasses of milk a day to ensure calcium intake.
5. As the supply of staple food carbohydrates is reduced, fat intake should be appropriately increased to maintain the daily calorie supply, and some dried fruits can be eaten appropriately to increase the supply of fat.
6. Within the range of intake, increase the intake of dietary fiber, such as replacing white rice with brown rice to increase the intake of fresh vegetables; try to eat fresh fruits instead of drinking juice. This can delay the increase in blood sugar and increase satiety. But don’t eat too much fruit.
7. Under normal circumstances, the weight gain of pregnant women during the whole pregnancy is 10-12 kg, and the weight gain per week in the third trimester does not exceed 0.5 kg. If the weight gain during pregnancy is too fast, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy, the weight gain exceeds 0.5 kilograms per week, the abdominal circumference increases too fast, and the lower limbs are swollen, you must pay attention to it and go to the hospital in time.
8. Pregnant women who have not undergone blood glucose testing during pregnancy but have high-risk factors for diabetes, such as obesity, first-degree relatives with type 2 diabetes, history of gestational diabetes or childbirth history of children older than gestational age, polycystic ovary syndrome, fasting urine in early pregnancy If the glucose is repeatedly positive, it is necessary to perform the pregnant women’s glucose tolerance test (OGTT test) to screen for diabetes.
Heart disease during pregnancy
Heart disease during pregnancy is a more serious complication during pregnancy. If it is combined with heart failure, the condition is more critical. It is the direct cause of death of pregnant women and perinatal infants, and seriously threatens the health of mothers and babies. Pregnant women who have found heart disease during pregnancy must use drugs rationally to avoid heart failure, reasonably choose the method of delivery and the timing of pregnancy termination, and reduce the mortality of pregnant women.
1. Strengthen health care during pregnancy and regular prenatal checkups. The frequency and time of the examination can be determined according to the specific conditions of the heart function. At the same time, accept the joint monitoring of cardiovascular medicine and obstetric high-risk clinics to understand heart function and fetal conditions. Pregnant women and their families should cooperate with medical staff.
2. At least 10 hours of sleep a day, insist on a daily lunch break, keep the environment quiet, and maintain a regular life. The left side or semi-recumbent position should be adopted when sleeping. Family members should provide good support to pregnant women, assist in sharing housework, avoid overwork and prevent their overexcitement.
3. Strengthen the monitoring of the growth and development of the fetus and the monitoring of the heart of pregnant women. Each prenatal examination should carefully measure the uterine height and abdominal circumference to understand the growth of the fetus, and find that the fetus grows slowly in the uterus for early treatment. The heart and lung conditions, weight and blood pressure of pregnant women are closely monitored. Pregnant women and family members can master certain self-monitoring skills, such as the determination of fetal heart sounds and the determination of fetal movement counts. If your heart rate is more than 110 beats/min, breathing is more than 20 beats/min, or you feel chest tightness in the middle of the night, you need to open the window to breathe fresh air; or cough, spit pink foamy sputum and other symptoms are symptoms of early heart failure. Seek medical attention.
4. Pay attention to psychological care. The mental state of pregnant women with heart disease is closely related to the prognosis. Patients should be encouraged and comforted to avoid bad mental stimulation; family members should give understanding, care and support in all aspects, fully trust medical staff, eliminate concerns as much as possible, and reduce the fear of pregnant women with illness The degree of anxiety or anxiety increases the safety of pregnant women.
5. Pregnancy heart disease patients should eat more high-protein, high-calorie foods, and eat less salt from the fourth month of pregnancy. Also pay attention to meet the intake of vitamins to prevent anemia. If vitamin B1 is lacking, it can cause cardiac dysfunction. Pregnant women with heart disease during pregnancy should eat more high-protein eggs, tofu and other soy products, as well as more iron-rich animal livers and green leafy vegetables.
Be sure to perform the first peri-care check around the 12th week, measure the basic blood pressure and weight, understand the basic health of the body, and understand whether there is a primary disease; if severe hypertension or heart disease is found, it is not appropriate to continue the pregnancy. Termination of pregnancy. Regular prenatal checkups during pregnancy are the basis for ensuring the health of pregnant women and fetuses. If abnormalities occur, you must go to the hospital in time.