In most countries, cancer is the top five cause of death. The World Health Organization reports that by 2035, global cancer patients may reach 24 million. But at the same time, on the road to cancer prevention, many countries, especially developed countries, have achieved a continuous decline in cancer mortality. Let’s take a look at the cancer prevention experience of various countries.
Germany: “Cancer Map” published every year
The Robert Koch Institute, an authoritative German health institution, cooperates with the German Cancer Registry to regularly publish the report “Cancer in Germany”. The latest report pointed out that since 2012, the number of new cancers in Germany has basically stagnated. At the same time, the 5-year survival rate of patients has been significantly improved within 30 years. This is inseparable from the “Cancer Map” issued by the German Cancer Registry.
The main task of the German Cancer Registry is to merge, quality check, analyze, and evaluate various cancer data in each federal state, and then release it. At present, the association has established nearly 50 registries in various states, mainly in local medical research institutions. It is understood that the “Cancer Map” is published once a year, and anyone can log on to the association’s official website to find relevant information. For example, the regional distribution of certain cancers: East Germany has 1/4 fewer breast cancers in women than in the west; thyroid cancers in the south are higher than those in the north; and cities such as Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg have the highest incidence of lung cancer in women. Not only that, but there are also analyses of the higher incidence of various cancers. For example, the lower incidence of breast cancer among women in East Germany is because local women have the habit of screening; the highest incidence of lung cancer among women in big cities is because they smoke more , Serious air pollution, etc.
Each federal state and region will formulate targeted preventive measures based on the distribution and analysis of the “Cancer Map”. Especially for people of different ages to carry out early cancer screening, for example, women should be checked for breast cancer and cervical cancer every two years. Germany is also the first country in the world to establish a cancer registration system. For cancer patients, they will register their personal information, disease diagnosis, surgery, radiotherapy, drug treatment, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, pain management and other detailed information in hospitals and other institutions to track treatment and provide them with the latest treatments and health information.
Klose, a health scholar at Humboldt University in Germany, said that through the “cancer map” and other means, not only effectively controlled the incidence of cancer in Germany, but also reduced the huge medical burden for patients and the government.
Japan: regular physical examination + early screening
Japan has achieved good results in cancer treatment. According to data released by the National Cancer Research Center of Japan in 2016, due to severe aging, the incidence of cancer in Japan is on the rise, but the cure rate of cancer patients is increasing, and breakthroughs have been made in the treatment of most cancers, especially the deaths of patients with gastric and liver cancer. The number of people has dropped significantly.
Cancer is formed in the human body through a process, so the earlier it is detected, the easier it is to cure. This is not only the key point of cancer prevention and control recognized in the world, but also a place where Japan attaches great importance to cancer prevention and control. In Japan, anyone who has reached the age of 20 pays the National Pension (i.e. medical insurance) every month and has a manual of “National Health Insurance”. Major medical institutions and private clinics will provide cancer screenings for those who have health manuals. Women focus on the breasts, uterus, skin and other areas with high cancer incidence, while men are prostate, skin, thyroid, and bladder. Enterprises and government agencies actively promote health knowledge to employees and raise their awareness of “love yourself”. Moreover, employees will be provided with 1 to 2 comprehensive physical examinations every year, and employees over 40 can also get a free opportunity to go to the best major hospital in the country.
Japan’s cancer treatment technology is at the forefront of the world. The government strongly encourages the research of new cancer therapies and promotes the emergence of various new therapies. In addition to the prevention and treatment of cancer, Japan also proposed the concept of “Symbiosis with Cancer”. For example, Professor Takahashi Takahashi from Kanazawa University proposed “cancer dormancy therapy” for inoperable patients. Through precise calculation, the type and dosage of anticancer drugs are adjusted to keep the cancer cells in the patient’s body at a stable number, thereby delaying the disease.
For patients with incurable cancer, Japan has designed a complete hospice care system, and medical institutions are available everywhere to assist patients through the final stages of their lives. The staff includes doctors, nurses, pharmacists, nutritionists, psychotherapists, etc., to provide comprehensive care to patients. Hospice care not only relieves the patient’s physical and mental pain, but also assists family members in doing various tasks after the patient’s death.
UK: Increase prevention education
In the United Kingdom, statistics from the Ministry of Health show that from 2011 to 2015, the average number of cancer patients cured each year was 6,500-17,000 more than the previous five years. The British Cancer Research Institute conducted a study on the history of 7 million cancer patients and confirmed that cancer patients in England and Wales survived at least 10 years after diagnosis on average, up to 40 years, twice the length of the 1970s. The British national medical service system mainly promotes the prevention of cancer among the people through three aspects.
1. Increase the public’s understanding of prevention and early symptoms of high incidence of cancer. In recent years, the UK has paid great attention to promoting the concept of “cancer curable” to the public. At present, disease diagnosis technology is more advanced, treatment methods are less invasive, early detection and early treatment, cancer is not so terrible, many can be cured. Moreover, the government puts weight control, quit smoking and alcohol restriction, regular exercise, and early screening as the focus of cancer prevention and health education, and encourages people to face cancer with a positive and sunny attitude. Community-radiation society is a feature of health education in the UK. The health department selected thousands of people for publicity, education and training on cancer prevention and early screening, allowing them to pass on relevant knowledge to their relatives and friends, which has achieved very good results.
2. Pay attention to early screening. The British National Medical Service System will conduct education and screening for different cancer organizations every year. Such activities are mostly funded by the government. The public is informed through the media which symptoms are early manifestations of cancer, and then community medical institutions will screen high-risk groups. Some supermarkets also have mobile CT scanners at the entrances, and professional medical staff help people screen for cancer. In addition, the United Kingdom has launched a free vaccination program, HPV vaccine to protect many young women from cervical cancer.
3. Actively develop new technologies and therapies. In May 2018, the British government announced the use of artificial intelligence and big data to diagnose chronic diseases. The British government said in a statement that by 2033, the plan will prevent approximately 22,000 deaths from cancer each year, and at least 50,000 will be detected in the early stages of prostate, ovarian, lung or bowel cancer. At present, some hospitals in the UK have applied artificial intelligence technology to many fields, which can process large amounts of data in a short period of time to provide patients with precise treatment and services.
United States: Mandatory smoking control to curb lung cancer
According to the latest data released by the American Cancer Society, the total cancer mortality rate in the United States has dropped by 23% in more than 20 years. From 1990 to 2015, the mortality rate of certain types of cancer patients decreased considerably. For example, the mortality rate of men with lung cancer decreased by 45%, and that of women by 8%; the mortality rate of men with colorectal cancer decreased by 47%, and the mortality rate for women decreased by 44%.
Even so, how to effectively prevent and control cancer is still an important task in the US medical and health field. Among many cancers, lung cancer is well known as the malignant tumor disease with the fastest increase in morbidity and mortality. In 2018, the number of deaths from lung cancer in the United States was 154,000, accounting for a quarter of all cancer deaths. Smoking is the primary risk factor for lung cancer. For this reason, tobacco control has become the highlight of the United States.
The United States began to ban smoking in the mid-1960s. In 1965, the U.S. Congress required the information that “cigarettes are harmful to health” be marked on the outer packaging of cigarettes. In 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) formally obtained the power to regulate tobacco products. In July 2017, the FDA launched a comprehensive tobacco control plan, and for the first time proposed to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes to a non-addictive level. It is also the world’s first to reduce the nicotine content to control tobacco. This is the bottom line of the cigarette industry. At the same time, US law has always prohibited any business from selling cigarettes to teenagers under the age of 18. The law also stipulates that no one can smoke in public places such as bars, nightclubs, offices, elevators, and shops. Some states even impose “smoking restrictions” on families with children. The United States also regulates tobacco production through tobacco taxes. Due to the increase in the cost of tobacco production, tobacco companies will also increase prices, which to a certain extent curbs the growth of smokers.
According to FDA data, the smoking rate in the United States continues to decline. In 2018, about 55% of adult smokers tried to quit smoking, about 7.5% of smokers said they successfully quit smoking, and the percentage of smokers who permanently quit smoking increased from 52% in 2009 to 62% in 2018.