It is now 2220. Because of the outbreak of nuclear war, the earth’s air and all water sources have been polluted, and the magnetic field and ozone layer have also been destroyed. The surviving people on Earth had to travel to other planets in a hurry. decision. This time, can people’s lives be as good as on an unspoiled earth?
Harsh Martian environment
It is very close to the earth, the planet that has a similar living environment and the most researched planet-Mars, will undoubtedly become the preferred alternative home for the people on earth. NASA’s rockets and the Orion manned spacecraft, Elon Musk’s space exploration company (SpaceX)’s interstellar transportation system, and Jeff Bezos’s space company Blue Origin also developed a space manned system. We With a reliable means of transportation to Mars, you can successfully land on Mars.
But we still overestimated our endurance and underestimated the harsh environment of Mars. Mars is farther from the sun and its orbit is a flatter ellipse, so the temperature difference between different places and seasons of Mars is greater. The average temperature of Mars is -60°C, but the difference between the highest temperature and the lowest temperature may be hundreds of degrees Celsius. The temperature in the polar regions in winter is -126°C, and the temperature near the equator in summer may be 0°C (up to 20°C), and We may experience the four seasons of temperature changes within a week. Strong dust storms often occur on dry Mars. It only takes a few days for the dust to ravage the entire planet, not only harming the human body, but also destroying the communication system.
However, the most worrying thing is the radiation from space, because Mars has no magnetic field and atmosphere, even if wearing thick protective clothing, it is still difficult to resist radiation. Astronauts who have been in space for several months often experience intense bone pain and are at risk of cancer. The same is true for long lives on Mars. Living under such conditions, it may not take long for the surviving people on Earth to be reduced by half.
Find a habitat on Mars
But in any case, those who are alive must continue to live, and we can always find the most suitable place for survival on Mars. Maybe we will live in Vale de Mariner, which is the largest canyon on Mars. It extends 4,000 kilometers on the Martian equator and is 8 kilometers deep in some places. Because of the low terrain and latitude, the temperature here is higher than other places, and the daytime temperature can be close to 0°C. At low altitudes, the atmosphere is denser and can be better shielded from radiation. This is especially important given that the average density of the Martian atmosphere is less than 1% of that of the Earth. And the deepest part of the canyon is very thin. Scientists believe that it is easiest to mine groundwater here.
Maybe we will live in the jellyfish nest, which is a karst-like landform. It is also located near the equator and is 1,000 kilometers long. A thick layer of volcanic ash covers the undulating ground. This volcanic ash will become our cover. The basic materials of the house. With these building materials, we can build egg-shaped huts, which have a double-layer radiation-proof roof and have the right angle of inclination to allow the sun to shine through.
To solve the accommodation problem, the diet problem must be solved as soon as possible. Many scientists have imagined these problems. Before the food we carry is finished, we have to prepare the next batch of food as soon as possible. Meat has a longer cultivation cycle than vegetables, so we have to eat vegetarian food first. We can grow lettuce like NASA astronauts. Its growth cycle is very short, it can be harvested in about half a month, and it can grow vigorously under artificial light. As for the drinking water problem, if our groundwater extraction work does not go well, we have to temporarily drink the body fluids we excrete, and recycle our sweat and urine after recycling and purification.
Develop Mars energy
None of this is a long-term solution. In order to live better, we need abundant energy. A large amount of radioactive materials uranium and thorium on Mars have entered our vision. The nuclear fission reaction will provide us with enough energy. With energy, everything is easy to say. Robert Zublin, the founder of the Mars Society of America, proposed a way to transform the atmosphere of Mars and start the industrial revolution as soon as possible, such as building factories that emit carbon tetrafluoride on Mars. Carbon tetrafluoride is a greenhouse gas. If 1,000 tons of carbon tetrafluoride are emitted per hour, the average temperature of Mars can increase by 27.8°C in only 30 years. The energy required for this process can be provided by only five nuclear power plants.
NASA astronomer James Green also proposed a method to “build” the Martian magnetic field, building a large dipole in space about 1.08 million kilometers away from Mars-a closed circuit with a current strong enough to generate an artificial magnetic field. , The magnetic field generated in this way can guarantee to cover the entire Mars.
The challenge of breeding offspring on Mars
With the atmosphere and magnetic field, we began to plant trees and pigs to build base stations, and from then on to live a happy life like on the earth? The ideal is good, but the reality is cruel, because the shortest estimate is about a thousand years to “build” the atmosphere and magnetic field. If it doesn’t go well, it may take hundreds of millions of years. Well, in any case, we are considered to have survived on Mars. If we can’t enjoy the bright future, we will leave it to our children and grandchildren.
Wait, can we leave offspring on Mars? At this time, it may have been several years since the first Martian immigrants landed on Mars, and the issue of reproduction should be on the agenda. But maybe we will be surprised to find that the birth rate on Mars is far lower than that on Earth, why do newborn babies look weird?
Because sperm needs gravity to move and combine with the egg, the amniotic fluid in the mother’s body that conceives the fetus also needs gravity to maintain its flow to provide nutrients to the fetus. The gravity on Mars is only 38% of that of the earth, which means it has adapted to the gravity It takes a long time for people on Earth to adapt to the gravity of Mars, and fetuses will also be affected.
If the child is lucky enough to be born, what will the “Martian newborn” look like? They may resemble large-headed dolls lacking protein, with swollen bodies and limbs, pale faces, and fragile bones. Of course, the reason is not just lack of protein. Under the influence of the earth’s gravity, our tissue fluid will receive a downward pulling force, but because the gravity of Mars is reduced, the tensile force of the tissue fluid of Martian newborns becomes smaller, and the tissue fluid may accumulate on the face and limbs, supporting them. It’s “swollen”. When the heart is working, the gravity that it has to fight against becomes smaller, so it may shrink and pump less blood, which will make the child’s face paler and weaker. What’s more serious is that the reduction of gravity and the increase of radiation will cause bone and muscle deformation, the spine will be elongated, the leg bones and muscles may be enlarged, but they are also more fragile, and the possibility of fractures is greatly increased.
First Mars War
Even with so many difficulties and misfortunes, human adaptability is powerful. After a few generations, human genes may slowly adapt to the environment. However, the problem is coming again. The living environment of Mars is still very bad in a short period of time. The living area is small, the food resources are few, and the population growth rate has increased. What should Mars do? No matter what others are doing, I must at least ensure that I have enough resources. Maybe everyone will have this idea.
The idea of building the Mars Internet All the elements of building the Mars Internet: from satellite clusters to space signal transmission rules
On the earth, the situation of grabbing territory and resources runs through the entire human history. How do we deal with it? First of all, diplomatic negotiations, economic sanctions will not result in diplomacy, but on Mars, economic sanctions may not have much effect. After all, everyone is likely to be equally poor, so let’s resolve it by force. The first Martian war broke out.
We know that Mars is very dry, and there are no decent lakes, let alone the ocean, so the navy does not need to consider it, and it is mainly equipped with army and air force. The army’s armored vehicles and tanks and other heavy mechs are not very useful, because the terrain of Mars is much rugged than the earth, and the settlements are not plains, but ravines and canyons. What about firearms? Machine guns that are affected by gravity may also fail, and the trajectory of bullets will be different from that on the earth. Soldiers are also “lighter as a swallow” than on the earth and can dodge bullets more easily.
The zero-gravity Phoenix laser rifle that once appeared in the 007 series of electronic games “Night Fire” may become the new favorite of the Martian war. This is a weapon that uses the high energy and high temperature of lasers to strike opponents without being affected by gravity. In 1989, the rocket beam experiment conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory was the prototype of this weapon. Scientists have mounted a neutral particle beam accelerator on the rocket, which can accelerate hydrogen particles to a high speed of tens of thousands of kilometers per second, and emit a beam of hydrogen particles through the electrode to bombard the target. The hydrogen particle beam emitted in the experiment can accurately strike satellites in space, but this accelerator, which is 1 meter long and weighs more than 55 kilograms, is not suitable as a hand-held weapon. It will take more time to equip the army. .
So how will air combat be carried out? The air combat on Mars may not be bombarded by planes full of screens like in the game, because the minerals of Mars may not be enough to produce a large number of aircraft, but the use of superb aerospace technology can also be very fierce. In 2018, the Joint Space Operations Center of the United States reported several times that Russia had launched the “Black Knight” satellite. This refers to the fact that the rocket carrying a larger communications satellite hides a small satellite with unknown functions. Small satellites in space. The US military suspects that the “Black Knight” satellites are used for reconnaissance or sabotage of other satellites, and can play a role in sabotaging communications or even attacking in space warfare.
Of course, the United States is not to be outdone. The X-37B space plane, which claims to play a role in predicting weather and scientific experiments, has been in the sky several times. The longest one has been in orbit for 689 days. Military experts from various countries also speculate that it is executing in space. Covert military tasks, such as monitoring and investigating communication systems of other countries. If there are many “Black Knight” satellites and small space planes in space, they are likely to show their talents in future air combat.