The Rituals of the Jongmyo in the Korean Imperial Court and Their Rituals and Music

  At the end of the 14th century, after the Joseon Dynasty replaced the collapsed Goryeo Dynasty and established the capital of Seoul (then called Hanyang, now called Seoul), a temple was built on the east side of the palace, the royal family’s Jongmyo【Note】to worship Joseon The spiritual card of the late kings of the dynasty. At that time, the descendants of the royal family held an ancestor worship ceremony in the ancestral temple every year. This is the largest and most important sacrificial sacrifice among the state sacrifices in the Joseon Dynasty, also known as the “Jongmyo Festival”. It “is the highest-grade royal ceremony held in accordance with the Confucian tradition, and the purpose is to practice the basic oriental concept of filial piety in the whole country, thereby forming a sense of ties and order in the national community.
  ” offering. Regular festivals are held in the first month of the four seasons of spring, summer, autumn and winter (January, April, July, October) and the twelfth lunar month (the twelfth lunar festival held on a selected day in December);
  The ceremony is very solemn and strict. The procedure is to welcome the god, to delight the god and to send the god.
  In addition to the offerings of food and wine, musicians dressed in red costumes play ritual music. Jongmyo Ritual Music originated from “Bao Tai Ping” and “Dong Da Ye” used in the banquet in the palace of King Sejong of Joseon. In the 10th year of King Sejong (1428), the music required for sacrifice was supplemented, and it was officially designated as Jongmyo Ritual Music. The ritual music at that time used percussion instruments such as chimes and chimes to play the main melody, and orchestral instruments such as flute, bamboo flute, Xiqin, and zheng played decorative melody, with solemn rhythm and elegant tune. In the process of performing sacrificial music, there are also performances of “Wen Dance” and “Wu Dance”, which express cultural governance and martial arts.
  Since the ancestor worship ceremony was finalized in 1462, it has been passed down almost unchanged for more than 500 years, becoming one of the rare ritual cultures in the world. After Japan annexed Korea in 1910, with the demise of the Korean kingdom, the ancestral ceremony was forced to end. After 1945, although the monarchy of the Joseon Dynasty no longer existed, the ancestor worship activities of Jongmyo Temple gradually resumed in Seoul, and gradually evolved into a folk custom in Korea. Now, ancestor worship at the ancestral temple is only held once a year on the first Sunday of May in the Gregorian calendar. The offspring of the last dynasty of the year, the descendants of the Li royal family, were officiated, and they all wore ancient dresses. Hundreds of makeup artists and students participated in the accompaniment. The solemn sacrificial ceremony usually takes several hours to complete under the free onlookers of the public at home and abroad.
  A Chinese scholar said that this kind of ancestral worship ceremony at the Jongmyo “contains the essence of the Confucian thought of loyalty and filial piety, which has a major influence in various important fields in Korea.” ; The sacrificial ceremony was designated as National Important Intangible Cultural Property No. 55. Relevant departments also organize training for performing artists of sacrificial ceremonies in due course. The National Center for Traditional Drama of Korea and the National Conservatory of Music are also collaborating on research on traditional costumes, supplies, musical scores and musical instruments related to ancestor worship activities.
  [Note] “Jongmyo Temple in Seoul” was listed as a World Cultural Heritage by the United Nations in 1995.