Are you ready to colonize aliens?

Crazy plan to colonize the solar system

  Nowadays, Mars is a big hit in the human colony of aliens. The first person to walk on this red planet will be as immortal as Neil Armstrong, the first to land on the moon.
  Although the colonization of Mars is one of the most compelling space colonization programs, let us not forget the possibility of space colonization in other parts of the solar system. Many people have proposed many plans to colonize the solar system, and some sound a little crazy. Below, we list 10 crazy plans to colonize the solar system.
  Cloud City on Venus
  our sister planet Venus can be a hell that the average surface temperature of about 500 ℃, almost 92 times the surface pressure on the planet Venus cloud atmosphere also contains large amounts of sulfuric acid. Of course, you don’t need to worry about sulfuric acid rain, because the high temperature here will kill you long before the sulfuric acid rain corrodes your skin. This hell on earth is not a good place for humans who dream of colonizing space. So, can we only say goodbye to Venus?
  However, NASA engineers still thought of a way to colonize Venus: to build a colony of floating airships at an altitude of about 50 kilometers from the surface of Venus. Just like the earth, the higher you go, the thinner the atmosphere. At the altitude they recommend, the air pressure of Venus is similar to the air pressure on the surface of the earth, but the temperature can still reach about 75°C, so the outside environment is very unsuitable, but the inside of the airship can use the temperature control system to generate a temperature Suitable environment.
  How to realize this bold plan? Early airships should be helium-filled airships—a cabin hung under the inflated balloon. Although this is not a revolutionary design, the surface of these balloons will be covered with solar panels, which can obtain electricity from the sunlight shining on Venus. These balloons will be launched into the upper atmosphere of Venus in the form of capsules, and then they will automatically inflate there, and will fill and float in time before the airship falls to the ground.
  Dome City on Ceres
  Ceres is located in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is a dwarf planet with a diameter of about 950 kilometers. Its surface area is slightly larger than that of Argentina. It is a large, icy, rocky planet whose surface gravity is only 2.8% of that of the Earth.
  Why would anyone want to go here? So far, we have not found any particularly useful minerals on Mars, but Ceres is one of the most mineral-rich regions in the solar system. You can mine platinum and palladium on Ceres, these two metals are priceless. What’s even more surprising is that this small rocky star contains more fresh water than the earth. Colonists can use this water directly, or convert the water into respirable oxygen and hydrogen that can be used as rocket fuel.
  However, the only way to turn Ceres into a human colony is to use a pile of domes. Because the atmosphere of Ceres is extremely thin, we must cover a transparent dome on the surface of Ceres. With the expansion of the colony, the colonists here can build a pile of interconnected domes one by one, until suitable places on the entire planet are covered by the domes, like the compound eyes of a giant insect.
  Is this method really feasible? For us, this plan is still difficult to implement quickly, at least it is difficult to achieve that kind of construction scale. But we have established some closed ecosystems on the earth to conduct experiments, such as Biosphere 2 in the United States, and BIOS-3 in Russia. Perhaps, the dome city on Ceres is just the continuous improvement and improvement of this technology.
  Concrete homes on the moon
  since the Apollo lunar module in 1972, the last moon landing, no humans visited the moon. The moon is cold and dusty, completely unsuitable for human habitation, but this does not mean it is not worth our return here. A recent NASA study shows that the cost of establishing a permanent colony on the moon is surprisingly cheap-only about 10 billion US dollars, instead of 100 billion US dollars previously assumed. NASA can start this project immediately using its existing budget.
  Moreover, the establishment of a lunar base is of high value from the perspective of economy and logistics. It is cheaper to launch a rocket from the moon, and most of the hydrogen and oxygen required for rocket fuel can be converted from water mined at the moon’s poles. Moreover, if we have not militarized space, the moon may become a transit point for space tourism.
  How to establish a permanent colony on the moon? People have put forward many ideas, including inflatable cabins, to digging holes under the moon’s surface, to building a space station on the lunar orbit, but the craziest and simplest is to build a concrete home.
  In 1992, a materials scientist studied a piece of lunar rock brought from NASA and found that the surface of the moon was full of everything needed to make concrete. In particular, there is a large amount of ilmenite on the moon, which contains iron and titanium oxides. The scientist also crushed a batch of lunar rocks into a pile of powder, and within a few hours let the steam pass through them, and finally created a piece of concrete that seemed stronger than ordinary concrete. Therefore, it does not seem difficult to build a group of concrete buildings on the moon.
  Mud Ball Habitat
  In 1975, NASA discussed the feasibility of a variety of “free space” habitat design options. “Free space” habitat is a habitat that is not tethered to any specific celestial body but is built directly in space. Among all the “free space” habitats they proposed, there is a habitat that is so simple that it can be realized immediately-this is the mud ball habitat.
  To understand the mud ball habitat, imagine a rope tied to each end with a ball. Each ball has a diameter of 22 meters and can hold 10 people inside. The rope in the middle will be 2 kilometers long, and the entire structure will rotate once every minute, so that the people inside the ball will feel similar to gravity on the earth. Then, wrap around 5 meters of lunar mud on the outside of each ball as a radiation shield. In this way, you get a well-considered space home.
  Mud ball habitat is considered to be able to provide all the necessary space habitat for a family. There will be rooms for planting plants and solar panels to provide electricity. In the middle of the rope, it also has a gravity-free manufacturing workshop, where colonists can create materials for building other mudball habitats. Just like the Western pioneers in the past in the United States, the pioneers who built mudball habitats can turn them into a city floating in space.
  Base under the icy crust of Europa
  in recent years, Europa has been seen as the most likely place in the solar system, extraterrestrial life exists. NASA is so serious about this idea that they are preparing for an unmanned deep space exploration project. The space probe will revolve around Jupiter and have 45 chances to fly past Europa, so that it can take the opportunity to find out if there is life in Europa. They hope to realize this project in the next ten years.

  However, a private company in the United States has more radical ideas. They don’t want to wait for unmanned detectors to complete the job, but want to send people there within 50 years, and the mission to Europa is also one-way. , I will never come back again.
  The surface temperature of Europa can be as low as about -170°C, it has no atmosphere (or extremely thin), and the deadly radiation produced by Jupiter continues to spill onto this moon. To overcome these problems, the company wanted to hide their astronauts under Europa’s ice shell. After building a temporary base on the surface, the astronauts will drill through the ice crust to reach the warmer ocean below, and then create a permanent bubble under the ocean floor or in the ice, and establish a base inside.
  O’Neill cylinder
  O’Neill is a huge cylindrical tube having a diameter of 8 km to 3 km in length, which can be simulated by rotating gravity. In theory, each cylinder can hold up to 10 million people.
  This idea was put forward by American physicist Gerald O’Neill in 1974. Of course, his idea was just used as a creative material for science fiction at the time. At that time, human beings had just landed on the moon, and immediately considered building a giant space city that could accommodate 10 million people. It seemed like an out of reach.
  However, as often happens, science is quickly catching up with science fiction. According to the analysis of the British Interstellar Society, we can build a real O’Neill cylinder today. Most of the materials used to build the cylinder can be mined from the moon, and we can build the O’Neill cylinder by using some of the less expensive spacecraft currently available.
  Asteroids bubble world
  a long time ago O’Neill cylinder the idea was proposed, NASA scientists Dandridge Cole had proposed a similar concept, which he called “bubble world.” Most of the construction materials for the O’Neill cylinder are taken from the moon, and Cole’s idea requires the use of more metal.
  First, we must find an asteroid that is mostly made of metal, preferably an asteroid that contains a malleable alloy like nickel-iron. It is easy to find, there are thousands of such asteroids around us. The next step will be to dig a tunnel through the center of the asteroid, pour water into the tunnel, and then use the collected sunlight to melt the ends of the tunnel and seal the tunnel. Then again use the gathered sunlight to slowly heat the asteroid and soften its metal body, and at the same time make the water inside boil, so that the liquid water will expand in the softened asteroid after it becomes water vapor. Create a hollow structure.
  After cooling down, remove the unnecessary water, use a mirror to reflect sunlight into the hollow structure inside, and make the asteroid spin to simulate gravity similar to the earth. In this way, people can build a space home in it.
  Bigelow’s space station balloon
  as the most expensive and the largest man-made objects, ISS has become a symbol of human progress. It is a cooperative project involving more than 20 countries that cost more than 160 billion US dollars. Since 2000, astronauts have conducted pioneering research on many aspects such as microgravity, cosmic rays, biotechnology, and dark energy on the International Space Station.
  Facing the cosmopolitan International Space Station, Las Vegas real estate tycoon Robert Bigelow had only one thought: “I can do better.” So he took out 500 million US dollars from his pocket and founded Bigger Luo Yuhang Company, to develop and build a commercial space station. Although the International Space Station is assembled piece by piece in space by launching once every two years, Bigelow Aerospace’s method is simpler: insert a huge balloon into the tip of the rocket’s nose, and once the rocket reaches the atmosphere In addition, the balloon began to inflate and formed a space station capable of accommodating six astronauts.
  It sounds like a radical idea, but it is feasible. Bigelow Aerospace already owns two balloon space station modules in orbit-Genesis I and Genesis II, and a Bigelow inflatable activity capsule (BEAM) connected to the International Space Station. In addition, Bigelow is not satisfied with only doing business around the earth. In the future, his balloon space station business will also include colonizing the moon, establishing a Mars base, and conducting deep space exploration.
  Disk-shaped Kuiper belt city
  -American Anglo mathematical physicist Freeman Dyson is either a knowledgeable person, either a madman. He has won many scientific awards, but some of his ideas often tend to fall outside the realm of scientific rationality.
  One of his most famous ideas is the Dyson Sphere, a large architectural structure that can wrap a star and can be used to capture most of the energy released by the star. But Dyson has also proposed designs for other parts of the solar system, especially the Kuiper Belt—a dense area of ​​comets outside the orbit of Neptune.
  In this area, comets are usually crowded in groups so that they can be tethered to each other to form a large colony. As Dyson envisioned, a metropolis in the Kuiper Belt would be a flat, disc-shaped collection of comets. The comets were connected by long ropes, and they rotated slowly together to keep the ropes in place. Tightened state.
  Even if they are not tethered, a comet will frequently pass by other comets, and they are often within 1.5 million kilometers of each other, which allows colonists to easily run from one comet to another. on. As for how to get enough light and heat in the icy Kuiper belt, Dyson said that as long as a 100-kilometer-wide mirror array is built, about 1,000 megawatts of solar energy can be generated.
  Bioengineering tree
  imagine a giant trees growing from the comet, its roots fill the gap inside the comet, forming its crown around the outside of the umbrella of one kind, and its hollow trunk inhabited bustling human colonists … …Welcome to Dyson’s weird thinking again.
  In 1997, Dyson published an article entitled “Temperature Plants and Freeze-Dried Fish”, which mentioned a plan to use bioengineered “greenhouse trees” to provide human colonists with space habitats. In the article, he introduced the steps of using this method to colonize a comet-like many legendary stories, the journey of human beings into the universe will begin with a seed.
  According to Dyson’s description, once the seed hits the surface of a comet, it will grow into a huge temperature-controlled plant, and it has been bioengineered to use only distant sources in the cold space environment. Sunlight can survive. There, the tree can grow very large, eventually forming a warm, enclosed habitat full of oxygen produced by photosynthesis. When humans arrive here, they can make a home in the hollow tree trunk.
How many people are needed to colonize an alien planet

  The earth is not the permanent home of mankind, and it will eventually be destroyed. Moreover, the various activities of mankind now cause various disasters to the earth are constantly being staged, so that our earth has become “wrecked.” In addition, coupled with the ever-increasing population, this has also made the damaged earth increasingly overwhelmed. Therefore, in order for mankind to multiply from generation to generation, mankind must expand into space to find a “second habitat” outside the earth and establish a new colony there.

  Star Trek long time
  , however, such a place in the solar system and the Earth does not have a similar, so we can only outside the solar system to look for another livable planet. Scientists have discovered that there may be five such planets: a yellow dwarf in the constellation Canis 27 light-years away from the earth, an Andromeda star 42 light-years away from the earth, and a star in the constellation Crane, which contains about half of the sun’s metal elements. , As well as 18 Scorpio and 51 Pegasus.
  However, the question is how can humans reach these planets? Needless to say, an advanced interstellar spacecraft must be used! But it needs to be pointed out that humans have not been to Mars in the solar system so far, and according to NASA’s prediction, it will take about 20 years before humans can finally land on Mars. Therefore, with the current level of human technology, don’t expect to be able to go out of the solar system to another planet. It can be imagined how difficult it is between interstellar travel!
  According to calculations, how far is the nearest star system to the solar system, Alpha Centauri (also called Proxima Centauri), which is about 4.23 light-years away from the earth? It takes only 4.23 years to get there at the speed of light, but we don’t have any interstellar spacecraft that can reach as fast as the speed of light. As far as the current speed of the spacecraft is concerned, if you want to fly to Proxima, it will take thousands of years to reach it at the fastest. It seems that although Proxima is “proximity”, it is far away!
  Moreover, these interstellar spacecraft have not yet reached the level of manned. However, even if the spacecraft is equipped with this technology in the near future, for the short life of human beings, they will never see the day the spacecraft arrives even when they die. If someone else will arrive in the end, it will be the offspring that humans have inherited after an unknown number of generations. Therefore, generation after generation will be born, live and die on the spacecraft before reaching the destination. You know, this is the nearest neighboring star to the earth, and it will take thousands of years, let alone those farther planets!
  It seems that in the long journey of interstellar flight, many generations of human pioneers are needed. Therefore, we have to consider a question: How to make humans reproduce normally on the spacecraft? There is no doubt that the number of people on the spacecraft must not be too small. So, before reaching the target planet, how many people must be brought to ensure human reproduction?
  The initial population to be more than enough
  anthropologist at the University of Florida is calculated based on the model of anthropology, if humans aboard a starship to a planet outside our solar system up and establish a new colony planet, the spacecraft’s flight time is 2000 , Then, there must be enough 150 talents on board to meet human reproduction needs. However, scientists at Portland State University in the United States believe that perhaps 150 people can meet the normal reproduction of humans in the early stage of the spacecraft flight, but there is no guarantee that the offspring of these people can continue on this planet in the later stage of the flight or after reaching the target planet. Multiply.
  We know that a small number of individuals in a population, and in a very isolated environment, is likely to cause inbreeding within the population. The consequence is that their offspring are prone to some congenital genetic diseases, so many people are Will die because of this. Moreover, the probability of the offspring of the offspring suffering from various genetic diseases will correspondingly increase, and the health status of one generation is not as good as that of the generation. If this continues, more people will die than give birth, and the number of individuals in the population will become less and less. The population is gradually becoming extinct. Therefore, to avoid inbreeding as much as possible, it is necessary to ensure that the number of individuals in a population cannot be too small.
  Some studies have found that inbreeding will cause more than 80% of the excellent genes in the population to gradually degenerate. You must know that this is very detrimental to maintaining the genetic diversity of the population. If the number of genes in a population is decreasing, then, This population is likely to go extinct. It seems that in addition to the number of individuals in the population cannot be too small, it is also necessary to ensure that the population has a high genetic diversity-each species includes several populations, and each population is often affected by mutation, natural selection or other reasons. Genetically different. It’s as if humans have different skin colors. This is caused by genetic differences.
  I have to say that 150 people are too few to reduce the risk of various genetic diseases and maintain sufficient genetic diversity. How about increasing the number to 500? Scientists believe that in the case of random selection, any 500 people may not necessarily represent the genetic diversity of all humans. If we really want to establish another long-term human planet colony, then we must sow as many human genetic “seeds” as possible on this planet so that humans can reproduce healthily and continue forever. Of course, this has to make the initial population on the spacecraft large enough.
  Why do you say that? Because in addition to inbreeding, there are also some risk issues that we have to face, such as disease outbreaks, mechanical failures, alien invasions, and the impact of the space environment on human health, etc. These risks will greatly reduce colonization. The population of the planet. Therefore, the more the initial population on the spacecraft, the better, so that even if a disaster occurs, it can offset part of the impact on human genetic diversity and population.
  The number between 1 and 40000
  then the starship how many people get to meet the requirements with it?
  The University of Florida and Portland State University jointly developed a computer model. The specific situation is this: the computer calculates the different disasters that may occur during interstellar travel through a specific algorithm, and sets an initial population size, and sets the travel time to 300 years (30 generations). Then, the computer performs 10 calculations for each initial population figure, and takes the average of the 10 simulation results as the final basis.
  The results show that if the initial population of 40,000 people is used, the final genetic diversity ratio can reach 100%. However, even if there are only 10,000 people, the rate of genetic diversity is still within a feasible range. Moreover, the results of these two numbers in various disaster tests are quite good, which can ensure that the colonial population has sufficient genetic diversity. However, if the number is less than 10,000, the rate of genetic diversity will be greatly reduced.
  It seems that for humans to successfully colonize another planet, there must be at least 10,000 people on the interstellar spacecraft, and the number of people between 10,000 and 40,000 is more appropriate. However, not all of these tens of thousands are on the same spacecraft. For example, when 10,000 people are placed on a ship, any risk is a potential threat to everyone; and once a devastating disaster occurs, all these 10,000 people may be wiped out. However, these people will be evenly dispersed on five spaceships. Even if one of the ships is damaged, the loss will be limited.
  Of course, in the future, human science and technology will become more advanced, and the speed of interstellar spacecraft will be faster. At that time, the time for humans to go to other planets will be greatly shortened. Moreover, in theory, it is entirely possible for humans to use existing or future decades of technology to travel between stars in their lifetimes.
  In the 1970s, the British Planetary Society launched a “Dedalus Project” whose purpose was to explore interstellar travel. Scientists have designed an interstellar travel spacecraft, which weighs 50,000 tons, is driven by nuclear fusion energy, and is expected to fly at a high speed of 12% of the speed of light. You know, at this speed, it only takes about 50 years for humans to reach Proxima. Also, in 2012, NASA was also launching a space exploration program called the “Hundred Years Starship”, hoping to allow humans to rush out of the solar system and reach other distant planets within a hundred years.

  It can be seen that the desire of mankind to set foot on other planets is not long far away. By then, we will no longer need to consider how many people we will bring! However, colonizing an alien planet is a huge project, after all, how many people can be carried on a spacecraft, the self-sufficiency of human beings on the way, and the security of human life after arriving on the planet are all issues that we have to consider.
Alien colonization is about to come true?

  People on earth have such a dream-to rush out of the earth, travel in space, and emigrate to a planet suitable for human habitation.
  Why do humans always have such dreams?
  First of all, the human brain has a strong sense of inquiry about the unknown world. This consciousness makes humans full of curiosity about the unknown world, so it uncovers the mystery of space and becomes the goal of the human mind. In other words, the strong sense of inquiry in the human brain is the thinking basis for human emigration to other planets.
  Second, humans are particularly competitive species. Competition is the law of survival in nature and a powerful driving force for the progress of human society. Driven by competition, various countries, especially those with advanced technology, have launched competition for space exploration projects. Maintaining the advantages of space exploration projects has become a way for countries to demonstrate their strength.
  Finally, the continuous deterioration of the earth’s living environment has triggered the psychological needs of human beings to escape from the earth. As we all know, with the continuous deepening of industrialization and the continuous increase in the number of people, the earth’s environment is suffering more and more serious damage, and there are many irreversible damages. Some areas have become “eternal” due to chemical or nuclear pollution. “An environment not suitable for human existence. If there are more and more such environments, the entire planet will no longer be suitable for human survival. Out of fear that the earth will be destroyed sooner or later, humans have a strong psychological need to move to other planets.
  In order to realize the dream of human beings to migrate to other planets, the United States formulated an alien immigration program called “Hundred Years Starship” in 2010. On September 13, 2012, this program was launched with financial assistance, so the “dream” of mankind immigrating to alien planets finally stood at the starting point of “come true”.
  However, for the “Hundred Years Starship” to complete the Earth’s immigration plan, the following three obstacles need to be overcome:
  The first obstacle: Can a manned spacecraft be developed that can operate for long distances and long periods of time? Newly developed spacecraft need to be able to continue flying in space for a hundred years, or even hundreds of years. When a spacecraft has been flying in space for hundreds of years, its internal structure will of course be quite complicated. The key to a complicated system is to have a reliable energy guarantee system and a life support system. Only with these two key and reliable systems can the spacecraft “continue to fly” and the people in the spacecraft can “live as usual.” In order to achieve these goals, the spacecraft must be built like a self-sufficient town with a mass of at least one hundred tons.
  The second obstacle: Who wants to take a spaceship to explore? The “Hundred Years Starship” is a “one-way spacecraft”, which means that once the people on this spacecraft leave the earth, it is impossible to return. Their expedition has only two results: one is to successfully land on an alien planet and realize the dream of living and working on an alien planet; the other is to continue flying in space, getting farther and farther from the earth, and finally losing contact with the earth. This kind of “go and no return” ride is a bit scary. Who wants to participate in such a scary space journey? So choosing brave riders is the psychological bottleneck in advancing this plan. Fortunately, as soon as the “Hundred Years Starship” project was launched, an African American female astronaut signed up to be the commander of the “Hundred Years Starship”, and she bravely decided to fly this “fuck and never return” space journey. Of course, only one captain on the “Hundred Years Starship” is not enough. In addition to the captain, there are also many men and women, and even some little boys and girls. Are these people willing to ride the “Hundred Years Starship”? It is still difficult for most people to make a “travel” decision.
  The third obstacle: Where is the destination? The “Hundred Years Starship” needs to choose an alien planet suitable for human survival as an immigration destination, but so far, humans have not found an alien planet suitable for human living. Taking a step back, even if a planet has been found to be suitable for human survival, would the “indigenous” of this planet allow the “immigrants and occupation” of the earth’s people? What if they don’t allow it and trigger an “interstellar war”? In view of the fact that there is no real alien planet suitable for human existence, Mars was selected as the target of the “Hundred Years Starship” project. Although the environment on Mars is harsh and not suitable for human survival at present, scientists believe that after humans emigrate to Mars, they can transform Mars and make Mars suitable for human survival, thus making Mars the “first stop” for humans to migrate to other planets— -Scientists set the date for humans to migrate to Mars in 2030. Of course, humans do not need to fly to Mars for a hundred years, only 9 months.
  According to the latest results of Mars exploration, it was found that although there are dunes and gravel on Mars, there is evidence that there is water on Mars, and there are still a large number of deep pits and caves on Mars. It is believed that these deep pits and caves can be the first batch of earth immigrants Survival “bunkers”, which may give humans a chance to become “coloners” of Mars…
Alien colonization, we have to be interstellar farmers first

  Flowers, applause, and flashing lights are just like welcoming the return of the “Shen Nine” astronauts a few months ago. On December 1, 2012, my country’s first controlled ecological life support integrated test crew members Tang Yongkang and Mi Tao got out of the cabin smoothly, and were highly praised by people. Warmly welcome, because they successfully completed the 30-day scientific experiment in the airtight test cabin. The success of this experiment indicates that my country has made significant progress in the field of “space farm” research. In the future, more and more astronauts will enjoy the “rural scenery” in the space capsule, and they can enjoy fresh vegetables and meat after hard farming.
  In the future, astronauts will turn into “space farmers”.
  Space travel is not like traveling on the ground. Many small things that seem ordinary will become big things in space. Space is a high-vacuum environment. There are no restaurants or toilets in the middle. Everything must be done in a closed space capsule, which requires a foolproof life support system.
  Carrying out long-term, long-distance, multi-occupant manned deep-space exploration and alien migration development is the inevitable direction of future aerospace technology development, and the establishment of a controlled ecological life support system is the fundamental way to solve the problem of life support. The so-called controlled ecological life support system, the English name is Controlled Ecological Life Support System, abbreviated as CELSS. The system is a comprehensive bioengineering that combines biological sciences and engineering sciences. It uses the characteristics of different biological species, combines some physical and chemical methods, and uses engineering techniques to establish a place suitable for human long-term work and life in space. The system mainly uses higher plants and microalgae to produce food, oxygen and water for the astronauts, and absorbs carbon dioxide and other exhaust gas generated by the astronauts; feeds animals to provide animal protein for the crew; through the decomposition of microorganisms, the waste in the system is transformed It is a reusable substance, so as to achieve a completely closed cycle of substances in the system.

  The above definition seems a bit complicated, we can simplify it: the so-called controlled ecological life support system is a closed “space farm” in which the astronaut’s urine and defecation and part of the domestic garbage pass through microorganisms. After being decomposed and fermented, it can be used as fertilizer for plants. Plants can be used directly as vegetarian food for astronauts, or as feed for animals in “farms”, and these animals can become meat for astronauts. More importantly, plants can also provide the oxygen needed by astronauts and animals, and the carbon dioxide exhaled by astronauts and animals can be absorbed by plants and synthesize organic substances through photosynthesis. After the plants absorb the urine of the astronauts, they can also partially convert the urine into water vapor through transpiration, which can become clean drinking water after condensation.
  From the material circulation process of the controlled ecological life support system, it can be seen that under ideal conditions, future space travels do not need to carry too much food, only some plant seeds and animal larvae of different sexes, plus a small amount of emergency drinking water And food, you can roam in space for a long time. The future spaceship is likely to be like the legendary Noah’s Ark, which carries many creatures. These creatures are not only astronauts’ partners, but also astronauts’ food. Tomorrow’s astronauts will have multiple identities. They are not only astronauts, scientists and explorers, but also “space farmers” who plant land in space capsules. Of course, the related technology of the controlled ecological life support system is not only applicable to space capsules, but also to alien bases.
  The happy life of the test crew
  In 1994, China started the related research work on the space farm shortly after the manned space project started. After nearly 20 years of development, starting from the initial conceptual research, a controlled ecological life support technology laboratory was gradually built. In 2011, the integrated experimental platform of the controlled ecological life support system including 12 sub-systems including the plant cabin and the crew cabin was completed.
  After many successful plant containment tests, for the first time in our country, the test crews were allowed to enter a sealed controlled ecological life support system for a 30-day sealed test. The focus of this experiment is to study the dynamic balance regulation mechanism of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and other substances between people and plants in a closed system, and to master the method of supplying fresh food to the occupants on the spot. In this test, the degree of closure of air, water and food (ie self-sufficiency ratio) reached 100%, 85%, and 15% respectively. The condensate produced by the system was 100% recycled, and wastewater and urine reached an average of 60%. % Of recycling.
  On November 1, 2012, Tang Yongkang and Mi Tao entered the test cabin and began the happy life of the test crew. For 30 days, in addition to conducting various scientific experiments, the two had to look after equipment, manage vegetables, and exercise. The airtight test chamber is a “two-bedroom”, and the air in the two rooms circulates each other. The large house is 36 square meters and is used to grow lettuce, lettuce, beetroot and bitter chrysanthemum. They are irrigated with the urine of the test crew and some tap water brought in at the beginning of the test. These vegetables can provide breathing oxygen for the test occupants, absorb the carbon dioxide they exhale, and use red LED lights for efficient photosynthesis. The small room of the test cabin is 18 square meters, which is the living space for two people. They can eat, sleep, exercise, and surf the Internet here. Although living in a closed test cabin, they do not feel lonely or lonely at all, but are more excited and proud.
  The two test crews participating in the experiment still eat mainly space food every day, but unlike the astronauts in space, they can also pick and eat 30-50 grams of fresh vegetables per meal. Since there is no stove in the closed system, they cannot eat cooked or sautéed vegetables, but can only eat raw vegetables in salads. Tang Yongkang, who participated in the experiment, said: “It feels amazing. I like to eat the vegetables here.” Eating raw vegetables every day sounds a bit uncomfortable. However, for those astronauts who travel in space for many years, fresh vegetables are their dream food. Today’s space food is mostly highly concentrated and liquid, and astronauts need to squeeze these liquid foods into their mouths like toothpaste.
  Gao Feng, deputy chief designer of the China Astronaut Center, pointed out that there is still a lot of work to be done next. For example, animals, including livestock and fish, will be raised in this “space farm” built on the ground in the future. The China Astronaut Center is actively planning to build a world-class and larger-scale research base for the closed ecological circulation system in space. my country has built the “Tiangong-1” space station, and will build more “Tiangong” series space stations, and future experiments will be transferred from the ground to these space stations. These tests will lay a solid foundation for our manned spacecraft to explore the moon and Mars.
  Building the “Garden of Eden” on Extraterrestrials In
  recent decades, some developed countries abroad have continuously conducted research on the feasibility of the “Space Farm”. As early as the 1960s, the United States and the Soviet Union began research on “space farms”, carried out a lot of research on space plant cultivation, and successfully carried out plant cultivation on the space station. There is a space greenhouse on the Mir space station, with an area of ​​about 900 square centimeters, where dozens of “space seeds” of different varieties of wheat are sown. Under the conditions of weightlessness in space, the sown wheat matures after 70 to 90 days. In this enclosed space greenhouse, all farm work, such as soil loosening and watering, is performed automatically by robots under the control of the astronauts.
  In 1972, Soviet scientists tried to build a controlled ecological life support system for the first time, and completed the construction of “Ecosphere No. 3”. This 1,033 square meter ecosphere is located in Siberia and can accommodate three people. The algae in large pools can provide them with oxygen. If everything in the ecosystem is running well, this system can provide 85% of the air and circulating water needed by the residents. The longest experiment conducted in “Ecosphere 3” was 180 days long.
  In 1989, NASA started the life support system experiment in the “Eco House” built. This is a building resembling a space capsule. There are also two rooms in it. One room is planted with plants and the other room is used for scientific research. Researchers studied wastewater treatment and indoor air quality in an artificial environment. As expected, planting plants can greatly improve air quality and improve the physical condition of the occupants. In 1991, Tucson, Arizona, USA, built “Biosphere 2”, which was the largest controlled ecological life support system at the time. Among them, 3,500 species of plants have been carefully selected, and 300 species of animals including pigs, sheep and chickens are freed. Unfortunately, this experiment ended in failure. This also shows that it is not a simple matter to integrate life into space for a long time.
  If the technology of the controlled ecological life support system is mature, then mankind has the hope of artificially constructing a “small earth” on the moon or Mars in the future. Scientists believe that in the future, the “space farm” is also likely to be a spherical coronal, using its rotatable mirror to adjust the indoor temperature, so that plants can grow in an environment similar to that on earth. The “Garden of Eden” built by the United Kingdom in southern England is such a spherical crown building. This is a semi-closed ecological life support system, planted with more than 4,000 species of plants from all over the world, and people can enter and visit through special hatches.
  Are you mentally prepared for future immigration to aliens? Scientists predict that if the problem of eating and drinking Lazard can be well resolved, the first batch of alien immigrants may appear within 50 years. Elon Musco, executive president of the American private aerospace company SpaceX, said that in the future they will build a migration base of 80,000 people on the surface of Mars. Currently, they are also experimenting with closed ecosystems. It can be predicted that the tide of alien immigrants may emerge during most of our lives. At that time, going to Mars to watch the sunrise will become a new tourist boom.

  Space is likely to be fresh meat silkworm
  which produces fresh vegetables and meat in a space capsule? In addition to considering the adaptability of animals and plants, the nutritional needs of astronauts must also be considered. The United States, Russia and other countries have conducted a lot of research on space recipes, trying to grow wheat, soybeans, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, cabbage, green peppers, etc., which can produce starch, vegetable protein, vitamins, minerals, etc. for food under the light.
  Speaking of meat, we immediately think of pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, ducks and fish. However, Chinese scientists have recommended a meat dish that we may have difficulty swallowing-fried silkworm. It is possible to raise large animals in an alien base. It is very unrealistic to raise these animals in the narrow space of a space capsule. Scientists recommend small silkworms for this reason. They believe that silkworms have high protein content, short growth cycle, high biotransformation efficiency, small space for activities, low odor and no waste water during the process of raising silkworms. Therefore, silkworms are expected to be the best candidates for animal proteins needed for space travel.
Further reading

  Hawking predicted: alien immigrants in order to save humanity
  , according to “Christian Science Monitor” reported on November 15 at a party student debating society at Oxford University, Hawking predicted again: Because of the challenges can imagine, the future of humanity will have to leave The earth, seek out and immigrate to at least one planet in space, continue to survive and develop.
  In an exclusive interview with the British “Broadcast Times” weekly magazine in January 2017, the 74-year-old Hawking predicted that the planet on which humans live is “almost certain” that there will be a devastating disaster in the next millennium or ten thousand years. He believes that in the foreseeable future, genetically modified viruses, nuclear warfare and global warming will threaten the survival of mankind as a whole. In the end, mankind may only survive by emigrating to other planets in the solar system.
  In his speech, Hawking said: “Although the probability of the Earth encountering a disaster in the next few years may be very small, (the probability) will continue to increase and it will become close to certain. In the next 1,000 or 10,000 years (it will happen) Disaster). However, by that time, humans have left and entered the solar system or other star systems, so the disasters encountered by the earth do not mean the end of mankind.”
  Hawking has repeatedly predicted the future of mankind in recent years, and the overall view is that disasters on the earth are difficult. Avoid, humans leaving is the hope. Some public opinion and some of his colleagues think that Hawking is exaggerating. But he insisted on his own point of view, claiming that technological developments such as nuclear energy, artificial intelligence, and genetically modified viruses have brought convenience to mankind on the one hand, but may also witness greater dangers facing mankind.
  In September 2017, the scientist who had been trapped in a wheelchair for many years and had to use a high-tech computer to “speak” published an article on the website of the British “Guardian”, reiterating that if humans do not go to space, there is no future. He believes that space is the hope of mankind, and it is necessary for generations of explorers to explore the solar system and even further away, to encourage young people to participate more in space and science in a broad sense, and to find answers for human survival.